American History After 1877 (Study Guide #2)

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William Howard Taft
27th President, only president to serve in both Presidency and as a Chief Justice
New Freedoms
A collection of speeches given by Woodrow Wilson during the election of 1912
Bull Moose Party
A political party formed by Theodore Roosevelt during the election of 1912
Rural Credit Act
a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural family farmers
Louis Brandeis
American lawyer and associate justice on the supreme court from 1916 to 1939
Charles Evans Hughes
an American statesman, lawyer and republican politician from New York
Missionary Diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson's idea of the United States' moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government that was viewed as hostile to American interests
Bosnia
The location for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne
Triple Alliance
a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed on 20 May 1882 and renewed periodically until World War I
Lusitania
British luxury liner sunk by a German submarine in the North Atlantic on May 7, 1915: one of the events leading to U.S. entry into World War I
Triple Entente
a secret agreement between Great Britain, France, and Russia during WWI
Sussex Pledge
a promise made by Germany to the United States in 1916, during World War I before the USA entered the war. Early in 1915, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships, but not passenger ships, to be torpedoed without warning
The War Boards
debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war
Liberty Bonds
a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I
Committee on Public Information
independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I
Sedition Act of 1918
an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered
League of Nations
An international organization established after World War I under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
William II (Germany)
the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. Leader of Germany during WWI.
18th Amendment
established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal
Election of 1920
Harding (R) vs. Cox (D)
James Cox
the 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920
Albert Fall
was a United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, infamous for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal
Charles Forbes
appointed the first Director of the Veterans' Bureau by President Warren G. Harding on August 9, 1921 and served until February 28, 1923
National Origins Act of 1924
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians
Consumerism
protection or promotion of the interests of consumers
Election of 1924
Election between Republican Calvin Coolidge, Democrat John Davis and Progressive Robert LaFolette; Coolidge won but LaFolette received 5 million votes
KKK
a secret society in the southern U.S. that focuses on white supremacy and terrorizes other groups
Herbert Hoover
an American politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression
Black Tuesday
share prices on the New York Stock Exchange completely collapsed, becoming a pivotal factor in the emergence of the Great Depression
Homeowners Bank Act
an Act of Congress of the United States passed as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression to help those in danger of losing their homes
Farmers Holiday Association
formed by a group of unhappy farm owners, it endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market- in effect a farmers' strike, which although blockading several markets ended in failure
FDR
often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war
The 1st 100 Days
are sometimes used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that the president's power and influence are at their greatest
1933 Banking Act
an attempt to stabilize the banking system
AAA
reduced agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land and to kill off excess livestock
TVA
a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley
NIRA
a law passed by the United States Congress in 1933 to authorize the President to regulate industry in an attempt to raise prices after severe deflation and stimulate economic recovery
SEC
a U.S. government agency that oversees securities transactions, activities of financial professionals and mutual fund trading to prevent fraud and intentional deception
PWA
part of the New Deal of 1933 was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes
CWA
primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution
WPA
the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads
Causes of Great Depression
1. Stock Market Crash 2. Overproduction 3. Dust Bowl 4. Poor Banking Practices 5. Unemployment rates increase
Glass-Steagall Act
An act the U.S. Congress passed in 1933 as the Banking Act, which prohibited commercial banks from participating in the investment banking business
Henry Wallace
the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-1945), the Secretary of Agriculture (1933-1940), and the Secretary of Commerce (1945-1946). Wallace was a strong supporter of New Deal liberalism, and softer policies towards the Soviet Union
American Liberty League
an American political organization formed in 1934, primarily of wealthy business elites and prominent political figures because they opposed the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Federal Reserve Act
an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States, and which created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes
Child Labor Act
Laws passed over many decades, beginning in the 1830s, by state and federal governments, forbidding the employment of children and young teenagers
Election of 1916
In this election, main concern of voters was whether or not the United States would become involved in World War I. Supreme Court Justice Charles E. Hughes and President Woodrow Wilson ran against each other. Wilson won by an extremely shallow margin, running the campaign slogan "He Kept Us Out Of War"
Woodrow Wilson
the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Leader of United States during WWI
Clayton Antitrust Act
an amendment passed by U.S. Congress in 1914 that provides further clarification and substance to the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 on topics such as price discrimination, price fixing and unfair business practices
Pancho Villa
a Mexican Revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution
Ottoman Empire
a former Turkish empire that was founded about 1300 by Osman and reached its greatest territorial extent under Suleiman in the 16th century; collapsed after World War I
The Black Hand
a secret criminal and terrorist society in New York during the early 20th century
16th Amendment
allows the federal (United States) government to levy (collect) an income tax from all Americans
Zimmerman Telegram
a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event of the United States' entering World War I against Germany
Russian Revolution
A revolution in Russia in 1917-1918, also called the October Revolution, that overthrew the czar and brought the Bolsheviks, a Communist party led by Lenin, to power
Selective Service Act
raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people
Versailles Peace Treaty
the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end
The Great Migration
the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General in 1920s; earned the title of the "fighting Quaker" by his excess of zeal in rounding up suspects of Red Scare; ultimately totaled about six thousand; This drive to root out radicals was redoubled in June 1919, when a bomb shattered his home
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote in 1920
W.G. Harding
the 29th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1921 until his death in 1923
Normalcy
the condition of being normal
21st Amendment
repealed the 18th amendment against the prohibition
1921 Immigration Act
restricted immigration into the United States
American Defense Society
a nationalist American political group founded in 1915. It advocated American intervention against Germany during World War I and opposition to the Bolsheviks when they came to power in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917
Calvin Coolidge
the 30th President of the United States (1923-1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont. Succeeded into presidency after the sudden death of Warren G. Harding. He restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity
J.W. Davis
an American politician, diplomat and lawyer. He served as a United States Representative from West Virginia from 1911 to 1913, then as Solicitor General of the United States and US Ambassador to the UK under President Woodrow Wilson
Election of 1928
The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith.
Alfred Smith
was an American statesman who was elected Governor of New York four times and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. He was the foremost urban leader of the efficiency-oriented Progressive Movement and was noted for achieving a wide range of reforms as governor in the 1920s. He was also linked to the notorious Tammany Hall machine that controlled New York City's politics
RFC
A Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document from the Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF ) that is the result of committee drafting and subsequent review by interested parties
Bonus Army
an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 U.S. World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates
New Deal
A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s
Election of 1932
In this election, a fresh and energetic Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran against the hapless Hoover. FDR pushed his ambiguous "new deal", and the public ate it up. The election ended in a landslide for FDR
Bank Holiday
a day on which banks are officially closed, observed as a public holiday
Ogden Mills
an American financier and Thoroughbred racehorse owner
Harold Ickes
an American administrator and politician. He served as United States Secretary of the Interior for 13 years, from 1933 to 1946, the longest tenure of anyone to hold the office, and the second longest-serving Cabinet member in U.S. history next to James Wilson
Social Impact of Great Depression
Optimism to Despair: The optimism disappeared almost overnight when the Wall Street Crash, on October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday), triggered the Great Depression starting the downward economic spiral that led to bankruptcies, mass unemployment, homelessness and despair
Hugh Johnson
American Army officer, businessman, speech writer, government official and newspaper columnist. He is best known as a member of the Brain Trust of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932-34. He wrote numerous speeches for FDR and helped plan the New Deal
Harry Hopkins
one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Norman Thomas
an American Presbyterian minister who achieved fame as a socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America
Earl Browder
an American political activist, functionary and leader of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA)
Father Charles Coughlin
the Catholic priest from Michigan Whose anti-New Deal harangues in the 1930's became so anti- Sematic, fascist, and demagogic that he was silenced by his superiors
Senator Robert Wagner
an American politician. He was a Democratic U.S. Senator from New York from 1927 to 1949. Working closely in the state legislature with fellow New York City Democrat Al Smith
Election of 1936
Landon was chosen by republicans to run against FDR, BUT Landon was weak on radio, and was two-sided in his politics
-FDR wins 523 to 8; FDR primarily won because he appealed to the forgotten man, whom he never forgot
Alf Landon
He was the Republican Party's nominee in the 1936 presidential election, but was defeated in a landslide by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Social Security Act
law enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935 to create a system of transfer payments in which younger, working people support older, retired people
Neutrality Act of 1935
Act imposes a ban on arm trade and other war materials to parties in war
Neutrality Act of 1936
renewed the provisions of the 1935 act for another 14 months. It also forbade all loans or credits to belligerents
Neutrality Act of 1937
The Act bans the trade of arms with Spain. The Act prohibits:

1. transportation of passengers;

2. transportation of any articles to belligerents;

3. citizens from traveling on ships of belligerent nations.
Neutrality Act of 1939
allowing for arms trade with belligerent nations
The Big 3
The three major automotive companies during the war: Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler
Election of 1940
-repub nominee was Wendell Wilkie
-dem nominee was FDR
-FDR won becase of a strong economic recovery based on defense purchases and fear of war causing voters to stay with experienced leader
Election of 1944
Year in which Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for president and John W, Bricker (an isolationist senator) for vice president. Democrats renominated Roosevelt but changed vice president to Harry S. Truman. Roosevelt won with sweeping victory. 4th term for Roosevelt
Thomas Dewey
an American lawyer, prosecutor, and politician. He served as the 47th Governor of New York from 1943 to 1954. In 1944, he was the Republican candidate for President, but lost to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the closest of Roosevelt's four presidential elections
Huey Long
an American politician who served as the 40th governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his death from assassination in 1935
Dr. Francis Townsend
American physician who devised the Townsend Plan, a popular proposal for state-funded old-age pensions
New Deal Coalition
the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s
Union Party
a political party in the United States created in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs who wanted to avoid secession over the slavery issue
W.M. Lemke
was the attorney general of North Dakota from 1921 to 1922. He later was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1932, an NPLer. He served four two-year terms in Congress. While in Congress, He earned a reputation as a progressive populist and supporter of the New Deal, championing the causes of family farmers and co-sponsoring legislation to protect farmers against foreclosures during the Great Depression.
American Isolationism
doctrine that a nation should stay out of the disputes and affairs of other nations
Lend Lease Act of 1941
the materiel and services supplied by the U.S. to its allies during World War II under an act of Congress
Wartime Conferences
a November 1943 meeting in Egypt with Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to a pre-eminent role for China in postwar Asia
Wendell Wilke
an American lawyer and corporate executive, and the 1940 Republican nominee for President. Willkie appealed to many convention delegates as the Republican field's only interventionist: although the U.S. remained neutral prior to Pearl Harbor, he favored greater U.S. involvement in World War II to support Britain and other Allies. His Democratic opponent, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, won the 1940 election with about 55% of the popular vote and took the electoral college vote by a wide margin
Robert Lafollette
an American Republican politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin from 1906 to 1925