What sociological change may have encouraged the innovative developments in Italian art of the fourteenth century?
artists began to emerge as individuals
Who was commissioned to paint the Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel?
Who was the patron saint of painters?
How were the innovations in fourteenth century painting comparable to shifts that occurred in the period's literature?
Greater emphasis was placed on observable elements of human experience.
Who painted a huge altarpiece for the high altar of Siena Cathedral?
The __________, surrounded by a court of angels and Siena's patron saints, are the subject of the Maestà's (18-10) central panel.
Virgin and Christ Child
The term "maniera greca" refers to the ___________ influence seen in Italian painting throughout the fourteenth century.
Cimabue, an artist working in ____________, was one of the first to demonstrate the shift to a more modern painting style.
Which of the following does NOT apply to Giotto's frescoes of the Scrovegni Chapel (Fig. 18-7)? A. Their placement complements the building's architectural details. B. They are organized to create symmetrical pairings that encourage viewers to relate biblical events. C. They distill complex narratives into compelling moments. D. They emphasize human emotion in their details.
A. Their placement complements the building's architectural details.
The term "modeling" refers to ___________________, which allows artists to simulate three-dimensional forms in painted figures.
the use of light and dark pigment tones
Which stylistic characteristic distinguishes fourteenth-century figure painting in Siena from that produced in Florence? A. the use of modeling to suggest three-dimensional forms B. the placement of figures in naturalistic and architectural settings C. an emphasis on jewel-like coloring and elegantly posed forms D. the use of tempera paint
C. an emphasis on jewel-like coloring and elegantly posed forms
How did the artists convey that the angel Gabriel is speaking to Mary in the Annunciation (Fig. 18-13) by Simone Martine and Lippo Memmi? A.They included iconographic details that symbolize Gabriel's message. B. They placed the figures in a conversational pose. C. They incised scriptural text into the gold leaf. D. They reference the chapter and verse from Luke in the framework.
C. They incised scriptural text into the gold leaf.
How does Giotto's Virgin and Child Enthroned (Fig. 18-6) differ from Cimabue's earlier version of the same subject? A. He eliminates the gold folds in Mary's drapery. B. Christ sits on her lap. C. The figures appear as solid, blocky forms. D. All of the above.
D. All of the above.
Which of the following themes is NOT found in Giotto's program of frescoes decorating the Scrovegni Chapel (Fig. 18-7)? A. scenes from Dante's Inferno B. the virtues and vices C. scenes from the life of Mary D. the Last Judgment
A. scenes from Dante's Inferno
According to the artist Cennino Cennini, painting on panel may involve all of the following EXCEPT___________. A. gesso B. gold leaf C. giornata D. drawing with charcoal
Applying water-based paints to the wet plaster of a wall is known as __________.
________________ exerted quality control among members and supervised education.
18. Italian painters in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries worked principally in __________, a paint made from powdered pigments, often mixed with egg yolk, water, and an occasional touch of glue.
Duccio's painted __________for the Siena Cathedral is known as the Maestà (Fig. 18-10).