Lifeguarding Chapters 1-5 Review
Terms in this set (77)
What is the primary responsibility of a lifeguard?
To prevent drowning and other injuries
from occurring at their aquatic facility
Provide three examples of how lifeguards fulfill their primary responsibility:
2.Preventing injury by minimizing or eliminating hazardous behaviors
3. Recognizing and quickly responding to all emergencies
List five examples of secondary responsibilities that should never interfere with
1. Testing the pool water chemistry
2. Performing safety tests (swim tests)
3. Cleaning or performing maintenance
4. Completing records and reports
5. Performing opening and pool closing duties
List five characteristics of a professional lifeguard:
1. Knowledgable and skilled
4. Courteous and consistent
Always be attentive and sit or stand upright
when on surveillance duty
A lifeguard is texting while on surveillance duty and fails to recognize a swimmer in
distress. What legal principle could be a problem for this lifeguard?
List the five steps that a lifeguard should take when obtaining consent from an
injured or ill person before providing first aid or emergency care:
1.State your name.
2.State your level of training.
3.Ask if you may help.
4.Explain that you would like to assure them to find out what you think may be wrong or what you can do to help.
5.Explain what you plan to do.
What is the validity period of an American Red Cross Lifeguarding certification?
How does an American Red Cross certified lifeguard get recertified?
Certification is valid for 2 years. Additional training may be required to meet state and local regulations or facility-specific policies.
To recertify you must participate in a review course.
Why is it important to attend a pre-season orientation and training?
1. To ensure that lifeguards understand their responsibilities and know how to perform their job
2. To ensure that lifeguards get practice with their facility's safety and rescue equipment and emergency action plan
3. To ensure lifeguards understand codes, rules and regulations of the facility
What does EAP stand for?
Emergency Action Plan
Why is it important for lifeguards and other team members to understand and
practice the EAP?
1. So that everyone knows their responsibilities and can perform them
2. So the EAP can be adapted and changed to meet the facilities needs
What is the best practice for the frequency of in-service training participation at
well-managed aquatic facilities?
Atleast 4 hours of inservice training per month
What are the benefits of regular, frequent in-service training?
1. Helps lifeguards maintain knowledge and skills as a professional rescuer.
2. Skills degrade quickly and regular practice and feedback keeps skills fresh.
3. Gives lifeguards a chance to practice with lifeguards at their facility.
4. Helps lifeguards work with the safety team to efficiently respond in an emergency.
List four topics that could be a discussed during in-service training:
1. Practice rescue skills.
2. Review facility rules and regulations.
3. Physical conditioning for lifeguards
4. Practice customer service skills.
What items are considered to be personal protective equipment for a lifeguard?
2. Resuscitation mask
3. Protective eyewear
4. Blood spill kit
What equipment should be worn or carried by a lifeguard at all times while on
duty? List at least two and include the reason(s) why this equipment should be worn
1. To keep it ready to use immediately
What safety equipment/items should be easily accessible for a lifeguard while on
duty? List at least two and describe how/when each item is used.
1. Back boards- used to help remove a passive/spinal victim from the pool when they cannot help
2.AED (Automated External Defibrillator)- is a portable electronic
device that analyzes the heart's rhythm and can
deliver an electrical shock, which helps the heart
to re-establish an effective rhythm.
As a lifeguard, you are responsible for:
Consistently enforcing your facility's rules
List five common rules and regulations often posted at an aquatic facility.
1. No Running
2. No Horseplay
3. No Diving
4. No Glass containers
5. No alcoholic beverages allowed
Explain what it means to be "equipped and rescue-ready."
To have all your equipment on hand/easily accessible so that you are ready to act if needed
Which list of typical safety checklist items, along with others, applies to a lakefront
Bottom conditions, pier attachments,
buoys, safety lines
Which list of typical rules, along with others, applies to a lakefront swimming area?
No swimming under piers, no fishing near
In a waterpark setting, what additional items might be included in a safety checklist?
Rides and slides — inspected and test
Rafts, tubes and/or sleds — properly
inflated and handles secure
Landing areas free of rough surfaces
Water level and flow appropriate
Electronic dispatching systems — tested
and operating properly
Why should waterparks have signs posted at every attraction stating the water depth?
This is to prevent patrons from finding
themselves in water that is deeper or shallower
than they expected.
What rules are typically covered for waterpark attractions?
The minimum or maximum number of people
allowed on an attraction or a tube at a time
The maximum height or age requirements in
areas designated for small children
The minimum height or weight requirements for
patrons using an attraction
What are some factors that make lifeguarding waterparks different than a typical pool?
Dealing with an abundance of people
Varying water depths to deal with
Dealing with slides, rafts, and other items not typically dealt with at a pool
Good to use with a crowded zone
Ideal for a single guard facility
Puts you close to the patrons to easily make assists
Used in waterfront facilities to patrol the outer edge of a swimming area
A lifeguard on duty should be able to recognize and reach a drowning victim within:
The size of a zone should allow for a lifeguard to recognize an emergency, reach
the victim, extricate and provide ventilations within ______. Explain why.
1.5 to 2 Minutes the quicker you react the higher chances of avoiding a major disaster (death)
What is the difference between total and zone coverage?
Total coverage is when one lifeguard is responsible for the whole pool
Zone coverage is when more than one lifeguard is working and they each have specific overlapping boundaries that they are scanning
Lifeguards should be actively ___________ their zones.
You are guarding a lap swim with only two patrons. All of the following will help you
deal with the monotony EXCEPT for which?
Swing your whistle lanyard.
It is very hot in your facility and you are starting to doze on the stand. All of the
following can help you stay alert EXECPT for which?
Jump in the pool while on surveillance
duty to cool off.
The glare of the lights on the water and the water movements are making it hard to
see all areas of your zone. Circle all acceptable options.
1. Wear polarized sunglasses.
2. Adjust your body position; stand up to look
around and through the glare spots.
3. Reposition the lifeguard station with the
permission of your supervisor.
4. Be aware of the normal appearance
of the bottom of the pool; know the
appearance of drains, colored tiles
or painted depth markings.
Why is it important for lifeguard managers to conduct drills to test zones?
To ensure that a lifeguard can clearly see all parts of the zone as well as quickly respond in an emergency
Fill in the blank: __________________________________________ , which can be
described as rapid, deep breathing, is a dangerous technique used by some
swimmers to try to swim long distances underwater or to hold their breath for an extended period while submerged in one place. If you see these dangerous
activities, you must intervene.
RID stands for
During rotation, both lifeguards must ensure there is no lapse in patron
surveillance, even for a brief moment. To ensure this, what should each
Incoming lifeguard: you should search the zone and be aware of the
activity level in the zone you will be guarding
Outgoing lifeguard: should inform you of any situations that need special attention. The exchange of information should be brief, and patron surveillance must be maintained throughout the entire rotation
Which scanning challenge often occurs at waterfronts but should not exist
Who normally provides training for watercraft used at some waterfront facilities?
In a waterpark setting, which type of lifeguard stations might you encounter
in a rotation?
Ground level and roving stations
What are lifeguards guarding at dispatch stations responsible for?
Guards at dispatch stations are
responsible for assessing each potential rider to ensure that the rider meets all of the requirements for riding the attraction that have been established by the manufacturer and the facility
What are some characteristics unique to waterpark features that may make it more
difficult to see a drowning victim?
Obstructions by slides and other attractions and play equipment
What are some scanning challenges that you may encounter when guarding a play
structure? What tactics can you use to counteract them?
Blind spots : 1. Adjust your location or body position, or stand up
2. Search all potential blind spots, such as under the stand, at play features or
any other part of the zone
Distressed Swimmer and Signs
1.Able to keep their face out of the water.
2.Able to call for help.
3.Able to wave for help.
4.Horizontal, vertical or diagonal, depending on what they use to
5.Floating, sculling or treading water
Active Drowning Victim
1. May not be able to call out for help because
their efforts are focused on getting a breath.
2. Works to keep the face above water in an
effort to breathe.
3. May be in a horizontal face-down position
during the struggle because they are unable
to lift their face out of the water. This may be
particularly likely with a younger swimmer, such
as a toddler.
4. Has extended their arms to the side or front,
pressing down for support.
5. Is positioned vertically in the water with an
ineffective kick. A young child may tip into a
horizontal face-down position.
6.Might continue to struggle underwater once
7. Eventually will lose consciousness and
Passive Drowning Victim
Some drowning victims do not struggle. They suddenly slip under water due to
a medical condition or another cause, such as:
• A heart attack or stroke.
• A seizure.
• A head injury.
• A heat-related illness.
• Hypothermia (below-normal body temperature).
• Hyperventilation and prolonged underwater breath-holding activities.
• Use of alcohol and other drugs.
List the three major strategies a lifeguard can use to help prevent injuries at an aquatic facility.
1. Informing and Educating Patrons
2. Enforcing rules
3. Communicating with patrons
List three things that can help determine if a life jacket is appropriate for use.
1. Swimming abilities of wearer
2. Type of water: fast moving, winding river
3. The activity taking place (boating)
(Swimming ability, activity and water
Guarding areas for young children:
Enforce rules, such as
height and age requirements, fairly and consistently. Note that:
1. Older children might be too large for some structures, or their play might be too rough for young children.
2. Toddlers who are still learning to walk may fall easily. If they fall down in water, they usually cannot lift themselves to an upright position, even if the water is ankle or knee deep.
3. Children often get lost. Remind adults to supervise their children at all times.
4. You must watch out for young children using the pool as a toilet. The facility should have procedures for preventing and addressing the situation, including handling fecal incidents, which follow local health department guidelines.
1. Prevent over crowding
2. Do not allow anyone to swim under structures
3. Pay attention to moving water
4. Watch areas where small children may fall very closely
Identify three strategies for ensuring safe group visits.
2.Classification of swimming abilities.
3. • Identification of group leaders or adult
Why is it important to educate your patrons about safety in, on and around the water?
The purpose is to educate all members of the
visiting group on your facility's policies and rules and to point out key safety issues.
You are in the lifeguard office taking a break from surveillance duty and a camp counselor requests a swim test for a new camper. You use the Red Cross water
competency sequence to conduct a swim test. Describe these steps in order
• Have the swimmer take the test in a safe area, such as near a wall, safety line or lane line.
• Have the swimmer take the test in shallow water first. If successful, have the swimmer move to the
deep water and take the test.
• Be prepared to assist a person who may struggle in the water while attempting the swim test.
Swimmers may overestimate their abilities (Figure 4-9).
• Ensure that chaperone(s) are present during the test, if applicable.
• Ensure that the person has safely exited the water after the test is complete.
At waterfront facilities using swim tests for group visits, areas for nonswimmers should
Be separated from the swimmer area with
a continuous barrier, such as a pier or
1. Keep patrons in view as long as possible.
2. Ensure that patrons who submerge return to the surface.
1. Do not let patrons dive into the waves or dive
through inner tubes.
2. Keep the areas around ladders and railings
clear so that patrons can exit from the
3. Keep other swimmers out of the pool during
special activities, like surfing. Surfboards or
boogie boards in the wave pool can present
a hazard to others
What additional challenges might you face when enforcing rules in a waterpark?
Varying age groups? Impatient people? Unsupervised children?
What are some responsibilities of a lifeguard assigned the landing zone of a slide?
Helping riders to exit a ride and ensuring the landing zone is safe before the next rider is dispatched.
What are some examples of rules or policies that might be found in a waterpark setting?
Height and Age requirements
Why should an EAP be facility specific?
Because different emergencies require different actions
Provide three examples of situation-based EAPs.
Water emergency—Drowning victim—active
Water emergency—Drowning victim—passive
Land emergency- Injury or illness
Place the following EAP actions in order for a situation where the victim is
responsive and does not require additional care:
Equipment check/corrective action
Return to duty
Report, advise, release
Signal, rescue, report advise release, Equipment check/corrective action, return to duty
Describe the actions of the additional safety team members listed below during a
rescue where the victim is unresponsive and requires additional emergency care. OTHER LIFEGUARDS
1. Assisting with emergency rescues, if trained to do so.
2. Summoning EMS personnel by calling 9-1-1 or the designated
3. Bringing rescue equipment, such as a backboard or an automated
external defibrillator (AED), to the scene.
4. Clearing the swimming area.
Additional safety team members:
such as communications, public relations, risk
management, legal counsel and executive leadership, may play a role.
When completing a report, you should:
Collect all factual information about what
was seen, heard and the actions taken.
Who should deal with questions from the media after an incident? Select all
The facility manager or the company spokesperson
Why might a supervisor chose NOT to re-open a facility that was closed during an emergency? Provide one example.
Depends on safety issues, such as
whether enough lifeguards are ready to return
to surveillance duty, all of the required equipment is in place or spills involving blood or other potentially infectious materials have been cleaned up.
Members of the safety team, including non-lifeguard personnel, should be:
Trained and certified in first aid and
CPR/AED at the same level of the
lifeguard team (for professionals)
After an emergency has been resolved, there are still three important tasks to
complete. Explain each task.
Report:Staff members involved in the incident need to complete the appropriate incident report form as quickly as possible after providing care.
Advise: Depending on the nature of the incident, your next step may be to advise the victim. For example, you might give the victim safety instructions to prevent a similar incident from recurring or recommend that the person follow up with a healthcare provider.
Release: A victim may be released only when the rescue and emergency care provided by you and your safety team is complete.
You must be prepared to respond to emergencies that are outside of the immediate aquatic environment and not part of your zone of responsibility. Describe three areas where these emergencies could occur.
• Locker rooms
• Concession areas
• Entrance and lobby areas
An EAP for a missing person includes quickly checking if the person is in the water. Checking for a submerged victim is most difficult for which area?
Underneath play structures at a waterfront
with murky water
What additional steps might be included in the EAP for a wave pool, a winding river and the landing zone of a speed slide?
An emergency shut off being activated to stop water flow or waves, shutting down a ride completely
What signals would you most likely use to activate the EAP in a waterpark setting?
An emergency stop button on a wave pool, Radios, Horns
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