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Methods Exam 2
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (34)
research design
the overall plan of a study for collecting data
units of analysis
cases or entities that researchers study
3 criteria for causation
empirical association, time order, nonspuriousness
criteria that strengthen causal relationship
causal mechanism, context
empirical association
independent and dependent variable must vary together
time order
x must occur before y
nonspuriousness
no extraneous variable
antecedent variable
comes before independent
intervening variable
after independent
conceptualization
define terms/ the concept
operationalization
identify specifics in concept
nominal
names, labels
ordinal
numbers in rank order, greater than/ less than
interval
numbers meaning distance, no zero point, prison sentence
ratio
has absolute zero point, how many times have you been arrested?
Face validity
measures what we say we're measuring
content validity
covers full range of the concept's meaning
criterion validity
external evidence demonstrates the measure
construct validity
when no criterion exists
reliability
measure is consistant
validity
measures what it is supposed to
intra-observer reliability
same observer same measure of phenomenon at different times
inter-observer reliability
different observers measure phenomenon the same
internal consistancy
measure consistency of "scores" across a set of scales
probability sampling
based on chance
non-probability sampling
not based on chance
the standard error _______ as the sample size__________.
decreases, increases
confidence interval for mean
how good is your estimate?
population
the entire set
sample
subset of population
2 types of generalizability
sample, cross-population
sample generalizability
ability to generalize from a subset, same population
cross-population generalizability
generalize from findings about one group to another
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