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Psych 111 Exam 2
Terms in this set (55)
What nerves are connected that allow reflexes occur?
Sensory neurons send signal to spinal cord, motor neuron send signal to muscle for action. Brain NOT involved.
What is the absolute threshold?
The smallest amount of stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time.
What is the difference threshold?
The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli.
What effect does multitasking have on attention?
Multitasking creates inattentional blindness or divided attention. Not as good at multitasking as we think. Significantly reduces your capacity to pay attention.
What does a change in wavelength do to our perception of sound?
Shorter wavelength= higher pitch
Longer wavelength= lower pitch
What does a change in amplitude do to our perception of sound?
Less amplitude= less volume/loudness
More amplitude= more volume/loudness
What does a change in wavelength do to our perception of light?
Shorter wavelength= purpler color
Longer wavelength= redder color
What does a change in amplitude do to our perception of light?
Less amplitude= less bright
More amplitude= brighter
What is the fovea?
Small depression in the retina where visual acuity is at its highest; detailed color vision; contains many cones
What is the optic disk?
The spot where the optic nerve exits the eye; is a blind spot due to absence of rods and cones
What is the Opponent Theory of Color?
Proposes the existence of "opposing" red-green, blue-yellow, black-white channels
Colors come in opposite pairs, when certain colors fire then others are suppressed. So then these others are released and you get an after-image. It's CONES!
What level of cells in the retina is operating regarding the Opponent Theory of Color?
The fovea; contains the highest concentration of cones
What structures are in the cochlea?
Specialized receptor cells that respond to vibrations transmitted to the inner ear:
1. Receive vibrations in the ossicles
2. Waves in the vestibular canal fluid
3. Movement of hair cells
there is a basilar membrane, it's filled with fluids, and has hair cells
What is the organ of Corti and how does it work?
In the cochlea; contains many rows of hair cells that transduce sound energy into neural signals
The "unwound" part of the cochlea, filled with fluid and hair cells. As sounds vibrate through the fluid, they hit certain hair cells in the organ of Corti.
What does somatosensation mean?
Bodily sensations that come from the skin, muscles, joints
The sense of your skin temperature, pain, body position; has to do with your skin and feeling things
What structure in our body allows us to sense motion, balance, and gravity?
The vestibular system: otolith organs and semicircular canals
What is the Gate Control Theory of Pain?
Incoming pain messages can be influenced by chronic stress (greater pain) or rubbing an injured part (less pain); two people might report different levels of pain
If I stub my toe and go to grab it and rub it, there's too much going on in the brain and it hurts less
Which brain waves are associated with each sleep stage?
Awake and alert: beta
Awake and relaxed: alpha
Stage 1: theta
Stage 2: theta and sleep spindles
Stage 3: theta and delta
Stage 4: delta
Which two areas in the brain have to interact in order for consciousness to occur?
Thalamus and cerebral cortex
What are the characteristics of REM sleep?
Increased blood flow (especially to genitals)
Relaxed muscles/muscle paralysis
Beta wave patterns in brain
Which hormone is associated with sleep cycles?
Melatonin (which is affected by artificial light)
Can you identify night terrors?
Awaken in state of fear; rarely remember what happened or dreams
Fast heart rate and breathing rate
Rarely in adults
Moving around, a lot of distress, body in panic, sweating, but if you are awoken you do not remember what happened and you don't think anything is wrong
How is brain death defined?
Irreversible lack of brain activity
Two flat EEG readings over 48 hours (24 hours apart)
Lack of blood circulation to brain
Can you identify a persistent vegetative state?
Wakefulness w/o consciousness
Often follows period of coma
In contrast to a patient in a coma, patients with PVS look normal
Eyes open every once and awhile
Can Cry, Smile, Scream - randomly, not reaction to a stimulus
What is drug tolerance?
Effect of drug lessens over time when taken consistently; must take larger quantities to produce desired effects
Body becomes more accustomed or immune to something
What is the criteria for classifying drug addiction?
Compulsive repetition of drug use and the inability to abstain from it in spite of serious negative consequences
Not able to stop at any time
Which kinds of drugs work like endorphins?
Opiates; like morphine, codine, big painkillers, etc.
What type/class of drug is marijuana?
What is the reported sensation of meditation from people who practice it?
•Lower levels of stress hormones in the body
•Enhanced immune system functioning
•Improved cardiovascular health
•Reductions in chronic pain
Meditation is a conscious state without thought accompanied by a blissful emotional state.
What word means "no longer hungry"?
What is the interaction between glucose and insulin?
Glucose is a sugar found in various foods, provides nutrition
Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's cells absorb glucose from blood
Drive affected is hunger. You get hungry when glucose/insulin are low
As glucose and insulin levels drop, you get hungry.
What part of the brain is associated with fear/being able to recognize fearful expressions?
What is a "set point"?
Weight a body seeks to maintain (doesn't have to be just weight)
Point your body is comfortable being (mine is like 145 lb.), not just weight (body temperature, etc.), the point your body like to naturally return to
What is homeostasis?
Balance; our needs are met
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
Intrinsic: motivation/reward comes from inside you
Extrinsic: external rewards motivating behavior
What are the symptoms of anorexia nervosa?
Maintenance of extremely low body weight mostly through fasting
Fear of gaining weight
Unrealistic body image
Which hormones are associated with romantic love (attraction and sexual desire)?
Oxytocin is released during sexual activity and may contribute to the feeling of closeness we feel toward our partner
Dopamine also influences sexual desire
Testosterone affects sex drive
What is the general idea of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Maslow conceptualized our psychological motives as different classes of needs to which we assign different levels of priority.
Which psychological disorder is associated with the underdevelopment of the amygdala?
Which part of the brain processes the emotional quality of pain?
What is the display rule?
A norm that specifies when, where, and how a person should express emotion; Talking about cultural norms; the idea of how we should display ourselves and our emotions. It would be inappropriate to yell at a professor as you would at a ref.
What is the SAME model and what does it say about the speed of processing emotion?
When you have more complicated emotions, it's harder to differentiate between them. More complicated it is, the longer it takes to figure it out and illicit an emotional response (finding out you have cancer is definitely sad, being on a date is more confusing).
The recognition that physical responses to a stimulus can range from quite specific to quite general. For example, physical sensations associated with disgust can be more precise than the physical sensations associated with pride.
Emotions that are associated with a precise set of physical responses, like fear, occur very quickly, but emotions that are associated with more general arousal, like pride, occur relatively slowly.
What is the effect of appraisal on emotion reactions?
(?) An emphasis on appraisal as a starting point for emotion may help us account for the vast range of emotional reactions that individuals might have to the same event
The way we appraise (evaluate) a situation will affect the way we react. We all do it differently.
We may have different values on what happens to us or think it's very/not very important. So how we value our experiences affect how we react. Everyone can react differently to the same situation.
What is the difference between a reflex and an instinct?
Instinct is usually more complex (instinct is inborn patterns of behavior elicited by environmental stimuli; exA: sneezing, crying, yawning; exists in order to help us survive) and reflex is inevitable, involuntary responses to stimuli, fast involuntary responses that are simple and inflexible (can't change or stop them); you don't have to learn them, you just show up responding to the stimuli that way; ex: when we pull away from pain
What are the three basic categories of learning?
Associative : Occurs when we form associations, or connections, among stimuli and/or behaviors. Associative learning helps us to predict the future based on past experience. In other words, if A happened, the B is likely to happen.
Non Associative: Involves changes in the magnitude of response to a single stimulus rather than the formation of connections between stimuli
Habituation: reduces our reactions to repeated experiences that have already been evaluated and found to be unchanging and harmless
Ex: You might sleep better in the second night at a hotel because you are more adapted
Sensitization: Increases our reactions to a wide range of stimuli following exposure to one strong stimulus
Ex: Following an earthquake, people often experience exaggerated responses to movement, light, or noise
Observational Learning: Occurs when an organism learns by watching the actions of another
What are the definitions of classical conditioning and operant conditioning?
Classical Conditioning: We form associations between pairs of stimuli that occur sequentially in time.
Ex: If a child sees a bee for the first time and then gets stung, the child will form a connection between seeing bees and the pain of getting stung. The next time a bee flies by, the child is likely to feel quite frightened.
Operant Conditioning: We form associations between behaviors and consequences. Unlike classical conditioning, this is based upon the child's decision to act or not.
If you swat at a bee and it stings you, you will be less likely to do it next time.
If you stand still and the bee leaves you alone, you will be more likely to do that next time
What is the unconditioned stimulus and response and conditioned stimulus and response in classical conditioning?
Unconditioned Response: The response that is naturally and reliably elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimuli: A stimulus that naturally and reliably evokes response
Food (Unconditioned stimuli) produces salivation (unconditioned response)
Conditioned Response: After conditioning has occurred, the response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimuli: A stimulus that was once neutral but, through association with the US, now elicits a response.
After conditioning, the sound of the metronome (conditioned stimulus) by itself is sufficient to produce salivation (conditioned response)
What is spontaneous recovery?
Reappearance of a response that had been extinguished
What are generalization and discrimination in classical conditioning?
1) Having the same response to different but similar stimuli
Once a conditioned response is successfully acquired, organisms show a tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimuli
Ex: The child who learned to be afraid of bees after being stung might also begin to fear wasps and yellow jackets
2) Being able to tell the difference between different but similar stimuli
Counteracting our tendency to generalize is another learning process known as discrimination, which allows us to make fine distinctions between the implications of stimuli
Ex: If you present food following a high tone but never following a low tone, a dog will initially learn to salivate following both tones due to generalization, but as learning progresses the dog eventually learns to discriminate or differentiate between the abilities of the two stimuli to predict food. As a result, the salivation to the high tone will continue, but salivation to the low tone will stop.
What was the outcome of the Taste Aversion study and what does it mean for classical conditioning? What do we learn from this experiment?
This study was about how they took sweetened water and fed it to rats but then gave them a mild electric shock immediately after drinking. Another group of rats was shown bright lights after drinking the water. The electric shock group would not drink the water even though it was sweetened but the "bright light" group still drank the water because apparently rats have terrible eye sight.
Taste Aversion Study by Garcia and Koelling. Learned: types of stimuli used as conditioned and unconditioned stimulate do matter and that some combinations are learned much faster than others. Takes more time to learn about a familiar conditioned stimulus than an unfamiliar conditioned stimulus (latent inhibition). (Look at PowerPoint for more details)
What is systematic desensitization and how does it work?
A variation of counterconditioning used to treat fear
Associations between a phobic stimulus and fear are replaced by associations between the phobic stimulus and relaxation
What are the key differences between classical and operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning: There's a behavior connected with some (+/-) reinforcement or punishment (controlling frequency of behavior)
Classical conditioning: There's a stimulus connected with some behavior that was not previously associated with it (Pavlov's dog)
What are the differences between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment?
Positive Punishment: Add stimulus to environment, Make behavior less frequent
Negative Punishment: remove stimulus from environment, make behavior less frequent
Positive Reinforcer: Make behavior more frequent, Add stimulus to environment
Negative Reinforcer: remove stimulus from environment, Make behavior more frequent
What is the difference between a variable ratio and variable interval reinforcement schedule?
The reward is given after a fluctuating number of behaviors (every 7-10 behaviors)
Ex: Sometimes when you check your phone, you will have a new email (reinforcement). Sometimes you won't, the reinforcement can occur in unpredictable ways and it's not based on the specific number of times you check.
Characterized by an interval that is allowed to fluctuate around some average amount over the course of a session.
Ex: Fish (the reinforcers) are caught after periods of waiting for fish to bite that vary in length
Fixed interval: mouse receives food every ten minutes (time)
Fixed ratio: every ten shirts made, you get one dollar (number)
Variable interval: fishing
Variable ratio: cat presses pedal different amount of times
What were the results of the Bobo doll experiment?
•The Bobo doll experiments show us two things.
•First, you don't have to engage in a behavior or experience reinforcement for learning to occur.
•Second, just as Tolman discovered with his rats in the mazes, learning can be latent.
•The children who viewed the punishment film had learned how to beat up Bobo, but they were reluctant to beat him up because they feared there would be negative consequences for them if they did.
**The difference between those who saw the consequence and those who didn't was small. (ie knowing there was a consequence didn't make as big of a difference as they expected (?))
Observational learning does occur especially in children as the children that were shown the violent video beat up the bobo doll and those that hadn't were much less likely to.
Observed learning: the police coming made them a little more hesitant and reduced violent behavior, but only by a little.
Recommended textbook explanations
HDEV (with MindTap,
Spencer A. Rathus
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
David Barlow, Stefan Hofmann, V Durand
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONNECT MIND/RESRCH/EVERYDY EXPER
E Bruce Goldstein
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