8 terms

The middle ages

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Serf
A medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord's estate. Serfs work/do labor for the lord in return for necessities to survive . Such as food , shelter , and protection. One of serfs main duties is farming and growing crops in the fields. The goods that they produce from farming belongs to the lord. Serfs were people who could not lawfully leave where they were born. Serfs were not slaves, the lord couldn't sell or buy them.
Feudalism
A political system in which nobles or lords are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land. Feudalism's has a system called the Feudal system it consist of kings and queens, nobles, knights, and lastly peasants. Kings and queens were at the top , they were the greatest lords of Europe. All nobles and knights were their vassals. Nobles were vassals of kings and queens . Many were also of lower rankings nobles and knights. At the bottom and last is peasants , peasants owned no land. So they were not part of the feudal systems. However many peasants worked on land owned by nobles or knights .
Vassal
In feudal Europe, a person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services. Medieval vassals under the Feudal System, or Feudalism, demanded that everyone owed allegiance to the King and their lord. Everyone was expected to pay for the land by providing work days - completing any chores required, providing trained soldiers to fight for the King, and providing equipment - clothes and weapons - for the soldiers.
Bishop
A high-ranking christian official who supervises / oversees a number of local churches. Bishops were powerful people within the churches and very respected. As part of their office they were entitled to riches and beautiful vestments. However with all of the wealth they angered other people in the church; people described bishops as greedy to the point that they almost are like an animal.
Fief
An estate/land granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal systems in medieval Europe. The lord or the land owner normal grants fiefs to vassals.
Charlemagne
Charlemagne also known as charles the great, he built an empire greater than any known since ancient rome. Charlemagne spread christianity, he reunited western Europe for the first time since Roman empire. He was the most powerful king in western Europe . Charlemagne added stability to the middle ages/Western Europe/Roman Empire.
Monastery
A religious community of men { called monks } who have given up their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and worship. Woman who followed this way of life were called nuns and lived in convents. Monasteries also became Europe's best-educated communities. Monks opened schools , maintained libraries, and copied books.
Code of Chivalry
Knight were expected to display courage in battle and loyalty to their lord. A complex set of ideals, demanded that knight fight bravely in defenses of three masters. He devoted himself to his earthy feudal lord, his heavenly lord, and his chosen lady. The chivalrous knight knight also protected the weak and the poor. However most knights , failed to meet these high standards . For example , they treated the lower classes brutally/unfair.
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