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Terms in this set (221)
Why study Internatinal Health?
- increasing knowlege on world issues and diseases
-world health affects all of us
- opportunities to learn about international issues and problems
Health is defined as what by the WHO?
"a state of complete physicial, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"
What is the controversy of the WHO definition?
social well being is hard to define - it is not only being content but also having a feeling of balance in relation to daily activities and people you interact with during the day. internal/external friendships
What are concerns of the first civilizations?
1. sanitary conditions
2. clean water supplies
3. spread of infectious diseases as travel between communities increases
when/where did the Vedic period occur?
India before 800 BC
What are the vedas?
composed of religious texts and outlines of rituals and practices
what are the five vedas?
what is the fifth veda?
known as the science/knowledge of life
When/where did the Brahmanic period occur?
India in from 800 BC to 1000 AD
what does the fifth veda include?
1. code of ethics
2. theoretical configuration of medical knowledge
3. medical practice
what about medical practice is included in the fifth veda?
1. careful history including patient's origin and travel route, diet, duration of disease and hygiene
2. diagnosis by listening to the sounds of the breath and entrails, observing color of eyes, tongue, and skin, feeling the pulse, and even tasting the urine
3. emphasis on diet and hygiene
describe medicines in India:
- 760 plants, herbs, and spices used as medicines
- given by mouth, enema, inhalatin, nose, eye drops, ear drops, smoke, and ointments
-steam treatment, sweat baths, dry cupping, and blood letting
what surgical practices were completed in India?
bone setting, removal of bladder stones, and cesarean sections
what were the triad energies?
India: manifested as wind (breath), bile, and phlegm
what are the six basic elements in Indian Medicine? what do they effect?
chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone marrow, and sperm. Any increase/decrease of these elements thought to produce a wide range of disorders.
Who was the emperor in china before 3322 BC
Who was the Emperor in China from 3322 BC to 2700 DC
Who was the Emperor in China from 2700 BC to 2500 BC
What was done in China under Emperor Hu-Fsi
Yin Yang principle, daily practices (marriage, cooking, domestic animals, fishing), and 9 different shapes of acupuncture needles
What is the traditional symbol of yin yang called? and what does it represent?
yang = light
What was done in China under Emperor Shen-Nung
-Fundamental theory and practice of acupuncture
- Medical properties of various food and mineral substances
What was done in China under Emperor Huang-Ti?
1. Neiching - a text book of medicine
2. philosophy of a body as a microcosmic universe based on the Yin Yang principle,
3. Five basic elements (metal, water, wood, fire, earth)
4. diagnosis made by observations through pulse, tongue, breathing, eye, and other body indicators
- 365 medicines include 46 from minerals, 252 from plants, and 67 from animal sources
- surgery was not developed
what are the five basic elements developed under emporer Huang-Ti of China?
metal, water, wood, fire, earth
Other ancient civilations that played a part in the development of medicine
aztecs, incas, mayans, peruvians, early people inhabited north america - had very developed medicine, but lost in time/translation
Development pf medicine in Greece included
1. knowledge of medicine contributed by minoans, egyptians, people from mesopotamia
2. hippocrate's concepts of ethics and medicine
3. hipocrate's 4 elements (fire, water, earth, and air
what were hippocrates four elements?
fire (yellow bile), water (phlegm), earth (black bile), air (blood)
development of medicine in rome included
1. Galen's writings
2. created the systems of state funded public health
3. created different levels of hygiene including public baths and hospitals
what happened to medicine in the middle ages (5th Century - 15th Century)
- europe passed into a millenium of scientific somnolence
- spiritual communities were reborn as the focal point of society
- no new medical knowledfe due to crusades
- average life span was 31 yrs for well off and 25 for commoners
- the regimen sanitatis salernitarium
what is the Regimen Sanitatis Salernitarium
a series of humorous aphorism on hygiene and healthful living, became the most popular text
what were epidemics that took place in the late middle ages?
1. small pox
Also: syphilis, malaria, diseases from industrialization
what was the plague also called and what was done to combat it?
the black death - quarantine
what epidemic occurred between teh 9th and 15th century?
what epidemic occurred between the 13th and 14th century?
current internation health concerns:
poverty, global mortality by communicable diseases, growth of elderly populations, who's who in world health
what percent of the global population is living in extreme poverty?
what is the main reason that babies are not vaccinated in many parts of the world?
what are current infectious diseases that are international health concerns?
tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis B, cholera, dengue hemorrhagic fever, ebola hemorrhagic fever
what are current parasitic diseases that are international health concerns?
chagas, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), trichuris
what are current sexually transmitted diseases that are international health concerns?
trichomoniasis, chlamydia, genital warts, syphilis, HIV/AIDS
Distribution of wealth in the US
Top 1% is 42% of financial wealth and bottom 80% is 5% of financial wealth
who's who in world heatlh?
WHO, UNICEF (United nations children's fund), UNESCO ( united nations educational, scientifici, and cultural organization), USAID (united states agency for international development), peace corps, CARE
What is the first round of globalization?
exchange ideas from ancient civilizations originated in India, China, Greece, and Rome. The Arabs transferred Indian science, medicine, literature, and mathematics to western Europe
what is the second round of globalization?
the rise of the West with industrial revolution and imperialism. Globalization was seen more as colonization than liberating force.
what is the third round of globalization
the transfer of western ideas feeds the present rise of India and China
how does globalization of the third round occur?
a process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments of different nations
what is driving the globalization of the third round?
1. technological evolution on innovation in developed nations
2. market drive which is facilitated by information technology that expands world market from developed nation to developing nations
what does globalization of the third round have effects on?
economic development (raising global standards of living, combating hunger), human well-being (empowering women, promoting literacy, and extending life), environment (more pollution), culture (changing local cultures), political system (turning to populism)
what is nationalism as a reaction to globalization?
developing nations start to lose their identity in terms of culture and traditions, particularly nations with weak socioeconomic status
how are politcal systems reacting to globalization?
developing nations need leaders with interest who can react effectively in the face of economic crisis
2. developed nations need leaders who can balance financial gains obtained by multinational corporations with the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common people
how does populism and politics react to globalization?
- leaders may seek forms of protectionism as a way to offset losses incurred by competition and political change.
- leaders may seek ways to protect their people's jobs as the manufacturing base is hollowed out
Who said "it has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity"
what are the patterns of globalization?
- cultural: entertainment
- economical/ political
- public health
- environmental justice
- international development and sustainability
what is the definition of culture?
the values, assumptions rules, and social practices of a people
what is the double duty of globalized societies?
oversee local priorities and keep pace with global ones
what effect will dominant culture have on smaller languages?
it will kill them off. 10000 to 15000 languages in prehistoric times reduce to around 6000 in the year 2000 and more in future
what is the goal of GATT?
lowering tariff rates. Internation trade regulation is thought possible by eliminating measures that discriminate against foreign competition
what does GATT stand for
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (WW II)
what does NAFTA stand for?
North American Free Trade Agreement, 1993
what is NAFTA?
Agreement between Mexico, US, and Canada. Reducing tariff and trade barriers to eliminate restriction on foreign investments and capital mobility
what was the opposition to NAFTA?
Cheap imported grain will reduce subsidies for corn farmers and increase job losses which in turn leads to poverty, escalating pollution due to Mexico's weakness in resources for environment enforcement, environmental regulation would be weakened due to trade-based challanges by foreign governments and companies, job losses to Mexico
what does the WTO do?
- facilitates and administers trade agreements
-acts as a forum for trade negotiations and disputes
- assists developing countries in trade policy issues
- cooperates with other international organizations
how is public health affected by trade?
increases in trade together with increases in manufacturing will add health risk and conditions not previously experienced
what are public health issues?
infections, parastitic diseases, chronic pulmonary disease, infant mortality, diarrhea, and malnutrition
when was the WHO established?
world health organization, 1948
what is the role of WHO?
- directing and coordinating health
- play a vital role in the field of international public and international public health policy
What are WHO's key functions?
- guidance in the field of health
-global standards of health
- work with government to strengthen national health programs
- develop and transfer health technology and standards
What is PAHO?
Pan American Health Organization taht serves as a regional office for WHO in the Americas
What does PAHO do?
-control disease and morbidity
- promote physical and mental well-being of people
- focus on primary health care
What does UNICEF stand for?
United Nations Children's Fund, 1946
what does UNICEF do?
- protects children's rights
- ensures their basic needs
- expands opportunities to reach their full potentials
what are the exportation of lifestyle diseases?
fast food, tobacco
what does fast food do?
fat consumption leads to heart disease and cancer
what does tobacco do?
leads to heart disease and cancer. Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer.
Why is the tobacco industry targeting developing countries?
because of the declining market in the US
what is biopiracy?
when patents are given to inventions based on novelty and degree of utility. Some companies have abused the patent law such as the patent for the plant tumeric to the U of Mississippi medical center which was deemed invalud in 1998
what does TRIPS stand for?
Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
what is TRIPS?
An agreement in Uruguay initiated by WTO to establish minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property regulation as applied to WTO members. Makes it difficult to access medicines in developing nations by forbidding them to produce generic drugs.
what is bioterrorism?
the threat of using microbes as agents to wipe out a populations
what are some biological weapons?
anthrax, small pox, nerve gas, crop bioweapons
what is anthrax?
caused by Bacillus anthracis, lethal if inhaled, an incident in Sverdlovsk Russia in 1979 killed 66 of 77 known cases
what causes small pox?
variola major or minor
what are examples of crop bioweapons?
wheat smut fungus, whiteflies genetically modified to produce botulinum toxin in corn crops that are used to make beer
what is environmental justice?
affluent communities generate more waste, yet wast dumps are more common in poor communities. The majority of landfills and incinerators were in predominantly african americans neighborhoods od houston in the late 1970s
what will facilitate international business?
technology - inernet and global telecommunication
what is resource utilizaion?
population-resource is a dilemma
- 2/3 global economic activity comes from rich countries
- increased productivity leads to issues
what issues does increased productivity lead to?
global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, radioactive contamination, pollution of oceans, depletion of natural resources
how does utilization work in rich and poor countries?
poor countries sell raw resources for food and rich countries use global rade to improve living standards
what is social sustainability?
americans own and consume twice as much as they did in 1950, but the percentage of happiness has remained the same despite material consumption increase. There is unsafe drinking water, and lack of adequate sewage treatment facilities. Growing population leads to depleted resources
what is the world bank?
commits to reducing poverty and improving living standards, supports many activities in addition to lending money, commits to protect environment
what is the international monetary fund?
promotes monetary cooperation, economic growth, and financial assistance. Arose during the depression when investment and trade come to standstill
What are the three worlds?
technofiles, pre-technofiles, and poverty quagmires
what are the technofiles?
-immersed in advanced technologies, particularly with digitalized ways of life
- experience a severely diminished connection to nature
who are the pre-technofiles?
- propelled to be the next technofiles
- relaxed environmental protection norms that in turn led to enormous belated health costs
who are the poverty quagmires?
- overpopulation, high maternal and infant mortality rates, low literacy and education
- political instability and border wars
- depleted agricultural soils
what is the impact on environment by humans?
Impact = funtion of (population size, population density, level of industrial and technological organization)
History of human population changes:
10,000 years ago - 5 million, 1804 - 1 billion, 1927 - 2 billion
1974 - 4 billion
2017 - 7.5 billion
top largest and smallest countries by population:
Largest: China, India, USA, Indonesia, Brazil
what is population momentum?
population continues to grow despite a country having less replacement births because there is a large proportion of young people entering into their reproduction uears even if they have less children per family
What are some strategies to slow down population momentum?
1. promote late marriage
2. advocate one couple - one chile
3. promote proper spacing
4. encourage family planning
What is the sandwich generation?
between a rocker and a high chair- have to care for both parents and kids
How is world population growing?
it is increasing - but faster in less developed regions than developed regions
What is the Malthus Theory?
increases in agricultural production grow arithmetically, while human populations grow geometrically
What is carrying capacity? what does it have to do with Malthus's theory?
the maximum population that a particular environmental/geographical area can maintain
What does Demographic transition (DT) predict?
changes in fertility are based on the level of economic development within a society
what are the stages of epidemiologic transition
stage 1: age of pestilence and famine (pre-industrial stage)
stage 2: age of receding pandemics (transitional stage, industrial revolution)
stage 3: age of degenerative and man-made disease
stage 4: age of delayed degenerative diseases (post-industrial stage
stage 5? resurgance of epidemics
what are theories of fecundity for?
explain and predict the number of children each couple has
what is the neoclassical microeconomics theory?
- the relative cost associated with producing a child when compared with other commodities
- the available capital resource for a child
- a couple's desire for a child relative to other possible preference acquisitions
what is the wealth flow theory?
the decline in fertility is associated with "emotion nucleation" of the family i.e. children become net beneficiaries of family life rather than their parents
what is the interactive fertility transition model?
fertility is a function of child survival considerations and personal self-interest
- parental perception of a child survival chances
- the cost and benefits of having a child
- the actual postpartum cost emotional/financial
what is the relationship between human health and the environment?
overtime, humans have modified/altered environment to meet their needs with negative/positive impacts on human health
what are the effects humans have on the environment
fire, agriculture, machines for mass production
- DDT, PCB, thinning ozone layers, loss of fertile soils, polluted water, deforestation, acid rains, climate changes
what proposed the IPAT model?
what does the IPAT model mean?
Environmental Impact = Popoulation x Affluence x Technology
who came up with the POET model?
Park and was elaborated on by Catton
what does the POET model mean?
contends that the interactions or relationships between human populations and the environment are impacted by the social organization and the technology used in the society
what is the local and global impact of technofiles?
low local impact and high global impact
what is the local and global impact of pre-technofiles?
high local impact and high global impact
what is the local and global impact of poverty-quagmires?
high local impact and low global impact
what are the enivornmental changes?
climatic changes and air/water pollution
what are causes of environmental change?
green house effect and a natural cycle from tropical to glacial and back again
what are the consequences of environmental change?
- arid areas' agricultural productivity will be worse
- crop insects will extend over new ranges
- sea levels will continue to rise
what are problems that will arise from desertification and land degradation?
what are problems that will arise from freshwater decline?
water quantity and safety issues
what are problems that will arise from biodiversity loss and ecosystem function?
decline in several ecosystem services
what are problems that arise from stratespheric ozone depletion?
what is the impact of global warming on health?
-wider spread of disease pathogens (agents) and vectors (transmitters): dengue, malaria
- floods more common in vulnerable areas that leads to contamination of potable drinking water
Major vector born tropical diseases taht are likely to increase due to global warming
malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis, american trypansomiasis, dengue fever, yellow fever
what is schistosomiasis?
snail fever- freshwater snails carry the infectious worm that can affect liver, urinary bladder, and other organs
what is lymphatic filariasis?
enlargement of body parts. A parasitic worm spread by mosquitoes causing swelling and thickening of skin
what is leishmaniasis?
spread by bite of sandflies
what is onchocerciasis
river blindness caused by bite of female black fly
what is american trypanosomiasis or chagas disease
spread by insects and causes swelling around bites
direct manifestations of a widespread and long-term trend toward warmer global temperatures
what are examples of fingerprints?
- heat waves and periods of unusually warm
- ocean warming, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding
- glaciers melting
- artiic and antarctic warming
events that foreshadow the types of impacts likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming
what are examples of harbingers
spreading disease, earlier spring arrival, plant and animal range shifts and population changes, coral reef breaching, downpours, heavy snowfalls, flooding, droughts and fires
what is the ozone cycle, birth and death?
ozone layer is a belt of O3 gas that exists within the stratosphere ranging from 10 to 30 miles from earths surface. it is produced naturally when when the sun strikes a molecule of O2 and splits it apart creating O1 atoms, combining to create O3 (ozone) gas. It is broken up by absorbing UV-B radiation from the sun and protecting the planetary species below
what causes ozone depletion?
chlorine compounds and nitrogen oxides
what does excess UV-B effect?
1. increased risk of some skin cancers
2. accelerated aging of skin
3. reduced immunocompetency which increases the risk of infectious diseases
what is small particle matter?
very tiny particulate matter that remains suspended in air and can be readily ingested into the deep recess of the lungs
where do small particle matter come from?
diesel engine fumes, agricultural activities, and certain industrial practices
what are the most dangerous SPMs
PS-10 with a diameter < 10 micrometers
how many deaths do SPMs cause in the US
excess of 60,000/year
what is the worlds most polluted city?
where is freshwater stuck?
locked up in glaciers, arctic ice caps, deep ground water sites, ricer (dam), and lakes
when is water considered stressed?
below 1700 cubic meters per person per year
when is water considered scarce?
below 1000 cmpppy
what is the hydrologic cycle?
the sun causes the warming of oceans sufficient to create evaporation whereby water changes from liquid to gaseous state. The gas rises and becomes constituent of clouds. rain is the conversion of water vapor back to liquid
how much water does an American use annually?
an olympic pools worth
what are types of quality of water?
potable or nonpotable
what are examples of nonpotable water?
1. waterborne diseases - excreta contamination
2. water-washed diseases - inadequate washing
3. water-based diseases - parasites
4. water-related diseases - vectors using water for reproductive cycle
what are examples of enteric diseases?
diarrheal disease and malaria
what are chronic consequences of diarrhea?
2. mental retardation
3. physical disability
4. learning deficits
5. reduced productivity
what is the diarrhea disease cycle
infections --> diarrhea --> dehydration and malabsorption of nutrients --> malnutrition --> impaired immune system functioning --> reduced resistance to infectious diseases -->
what are examples of infectious diseases?
herpes virus, HIV/AIDS, newly emerging and reemerging diseases, the globalization of human immune system, ecological disruption of nature environments, development of antimicrobial resistance, key microbes gaining resistance, antibiotic resistance, mad cow disease, flesh eating bacteria, e. coli on the attack, infectious diseases
what are solutions to global environmental health
the dynamic functioning world ecosystem
what is malnutrition?
not simply a lack of nutritious food, but often compounded by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals which leads to problems associated with deficiencies of various sorts - overnutrition is malnutrition
what are examples of malnutrition?
- iron deficiency leads to anemia
- iodine deficiency leads to severe problems
how much of the world suffers from malnutrition?
what is BMI
703 x mass(lb)/height2 (inch)
what is an underweight BMI
what is a normal or healthy weight BMI
what is overweight BMI
what is an obese BMI
what states have the highest obesity rates?
louisianna, mississippi, alabama, west viriginia
what are food issues in developing nations?
- protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) disease
- micronutrient/vitamin deficiency anemia
- nutrition-related chronic diseases and their impact on human health
what are the food pyramid components
grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans
how many children worldwide suffer from Protein-energy malnutrition
where is PEM prevalent?
Africa, Central America, South America, the Near East and the Far East
a physical process of starvation, accompanied by PEM, common in children whose mothers have recently had another child and have weaned the first child
the body begins to metabolize its own protein sources, accelerated by inadequate intake of micronutrients such as zinc, iodine, and vitamin A
what are issues that come from vitamin A deficiency
prone to infectious diseases, night blindness, more susceptible if suffering diarrhea/respiratory illness - can cause night blindness
does Amaranth contain vitamin A?
NO. per 4.9oz provides vitamin A 0%, vitamin C 15%, calcium 31%, iron 82%
do baobob leaves contain vitamin A?
per 1/6 oz provide vitamin A, Vitamin C, thiamin (B1), B6
what are issues that can come from iodine deficiency disease?
mental retardation (cretinism), speech and hearing defects, delayed motored development, goiter
what can come from vitamin D deficiency?
bone deformities, rickets
what can come from vitamin C deficiency
scurvy, aches in bones, muscle, and joints
what can come from Vitamin B deficiency
beriberi, enlarged heart, edema, degenerated nervous system (paralysis)
what causes cardiovascular disease?
cholester from high density liproteins and low density proteins. Saturated fat, regardless of type is linked with increased heart disease risk
what is HDL
good cholesterol - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
what is LDL
bad cholesterol - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
what is artherosclerosis?
the process by which fatty streaks and fibrous plaques are deposited in the inner layer of the arteries
what causes hypertension?
there is a positive relationship between salt intake and high blood pressure, as well as a correlation between obesity and blood pressure
what is a normal blood pressure?
below 120 systolic, and below 80 diastolic
what is prehypertension
120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic
what is hypertension stage 1
140-159 systolic or 90-99 diastolic
what is hypertension stage 2
>160 systolic or >100 diastolic
what is a hypertension crisis?
> 180 systolic or >110 diastolic
what is obesity?
an excessively high body fat in proportion to lean body tissue
what is hyperplastic obesity?
obesity due to an increase in the number of fat cells
what is hypertrophic obesity?
obesity due to an increase in the size of fat cells
what are eating disorders?
anorexia, bulimia, binge eating
how is cancer effected by nutrition?
dietary fat plays a significant role in cancer
nutrition related disease and their impact on human health
eating disorders, cancer, strokes, and diabetes mellitus
what is type one diabetes?
insulin dependent - is usually the result of the destruction of the insulin secreting cells and may have genetic links
what is type two diabetes
is non-insulin dependent diabetes is often not seen until adulthood
what is the risk of tobacco v meat?
the evidence that shows processed meat causes cancer is as strong as the evidence for tobacco, but the risk from tobacco is much higher
food patterns in Africa
- maternal mortality rates are high
- 50 million preschool children suffer protein-energy malnutrition
- disasters and wars force many Africans to become refugees
- many nations are high at risk of malnutrition, diarrhea, vitamin A & B deficiencies, unsafe water, sanitation
how many people could be fed if we reduced waste by 15 percent in america?
25 million people
what is the mexican diet?
- traditional: rice, beans, chili pepper, corn or flour tortilla
- many dishes will be healthier if cooking techniques are monitored
what is US diet?
a variety of cuisine seen in different regions, food industry
what is the Eastern Mediterranean diet
fasting is often practiced by healthy adults
what is the European diet
- many areas are actively involved in health promotion
- other nations in Eastern Europe may suffer changes in health
what are food patterns like in south korea, sri lanka, and thailand
changes in diets lead to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and non communicable diseases
what are food patterns like in india, bangladesh, and nepal
malnutrition, iodine deficiency
what are food patterns like in china?
hypertension, diabetes, cancer, fluorine poisoning, iodine deficiency
what are food patterns in china
how many adults report depression in the US
1 in 10
how many people that have symptoms of clinical depression are not receiving any specific treatment for depression
how much does the number of patients diagnosed with depression increase each year?
states with higher rates of depression also have high rates of
obesity, heart disease, stroke, sleep disorders, lack of education, less access to medical insurance
what are individuals with depression more likely to suffer from
unemployment and recently divorced
what is the age that depression is most common
how common is depression by ethnicity
african american - 4%
hispanics - 4%
others - 4.3%
caucasians - 3.1%
what gender has higher rates of depression
women (twice as likely), 1 in 10 after giving birth
what percent of depression cases can be effectively treated with brief, structured forms of psychotherapy and antidepressant medications
how many people in the worl suffer from depression?
121 million people
what is the art of happiness?
- developing an intensive personal development plan to cultivate greater happiness and life satisfaction
- allowing happy people to live longer
- having better relationships, less marital and family discord, and are more successful at work
- tending to be much more altruistic, reaching out with compassion to lend a hand to those who suffer
what is compassion
- understanding the emotional state of another or oneself
- often combined with a desire to alleviate or reduce the suffering of another
- if you want other happy, practice compassion
who said "if you want happy, practice compassion"
the dalai lama
how is mediation food for the mind?
- is the practice that quiets the mind and focuses inwardly for a set period of time
- is a powerful way to reduce stresses by detaching from your emotions such as anxiety, depression, instead of becoming consumed by them
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