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Psychology is defined as...

the science of mind and behavior

What unites psychology?

all psychologists are committed to the scientific method

Creating knowledge is to using knowledge as _____ is to ______.

research psychologist; psychologist practitioner

Which best describes the "everyday research" that we all perform when we try to understand thoughts and behavior?

It can lead us to believe that we know the causes of things when we really do not.

Hindsight bias

the tendency to think that we could have predicted things that we probably would not have been able to predict

One morning, Alan wakes to the news that a powerful earthquake occurred in California. "I told you the big one would hit this year!" he exclaims. Alan appears subject to the _______ bias.


"History is the most fundamental of all the humanities," lectures a professor early in the semester. In your textbook's terms, the professor's statement is a ______.


Personal statements are to objective statements as ______ are to ______.

values; facts

Regarding science, which of the following statements is most accurate?

values affect science

relationship between facts and values

research can sometimes provide facts that can help people develop their values

which of these statements is at the social/cultural level of explanation?

women experience more depression than men do

define individual differences

variations among people

correctly match a challenge of studying psychology with an example

individual differences: some people have lower self esteem than others

behavior is produced by many causes, it is _______.

multiply determined

gene is to environment as ______ is to ______.

nature; nurture

define heritability

the proportion of observed differences among people that is due to genetics

research reports about free will...

people may believe that they have free will even when they do not

free will and contemporary empirical research

free will is an illusion; the strength of the illusion varies in different situations

define unconscious processes

behavior is often caused by factors outside our awareness

behaviorist stance on nature vs nurture and free will vs determinism

strongly nurture; strongly determinism

Whereas the philosophers ___________ believed that humans possessed some innate knowledge, the philosopher ______ believed that all knowledge derived from experience.

Plato and Descartes; Aristotle

"tabula rasa" translates into

empty slate

Descartes' view of the relationship between the mind and the body

the mind is different from the body

Wundt's contribution to psychology

-opened one of the first laboratories in psychology
-Leipzig, Germany
-the 1800s

two of the first psychologists were...

Wundt and James

define structuralism

uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements of psychological experience

structuralists say the goal of psychology is to...

identify the elements of conscious experience

a procedure in which an observer describes the simple elements of a complex experience in as much detail as possible


define introspection

the person describes what they experience

which does NOT identify one of the contributions of the psychodynamic approach?

a. it highlighted the important role of the unconscious
c. it pointed out that therapy can improve human lives
d. it underscored the lasting effects of childhood experiences

best-known structuralist, Wundt's student


challenge of studying psychology that was especially problematic for the structuralists

the bases of our experiences are often outside our awareness

aim of the functionalist approach

it seeks to determine the purpose of mental processes

define functionalism

attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychology aspects that they currently possess

match functionalism

emphasizes why our behavior and mental processes are the way they are

William James would most readily agree with the statement...

Thinking is for doing.

with respect to psychology of emotion, William James would be most interested in...

how emotions aid one's adaptation to the environment

Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection strongly influenced the ______ approach in psychology.


the functionalist approach helped shape the contemporary field of:

evolutionary psychology

the fate of the functional approach to psychology

functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, but its ideas have become absorbed into the field of evolutionary psychology

define evolutionary psychology

the application of the Darwinian theory of natural selection to understanding behavior

term closely associated with evolutionary psychology


shortcoming of evolutionary psychology

its predictions are often difficult to test

the stereotype of psychology held by the person on the street accords most closely with the _______ approach.


cognitive psychologists include all except...


psychodynamic perspective originated in the work of ______, a Viennese neurologist.


Which challenge of studying psychology did Freud bring to our attention?

unconscious processes

influence of the psychodynamic approach

research has not supported some of its ideas, but the approach has had a lasting influence

evidence type used for foundation of Freud's psychodynamic theory

case studies of patients in psychotherapy

define behavioralism

based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to study behavior itself

behaviorists only study


psychologist that studied salvation in dogs


stimulus is to response as ______ is to ______.

environment; behavior

psychologist that studied conditioning of fear responses to a rabbit in boy named Little Albert


Watsons view of the mind

"It is not possible to study consciousness objectively."

Skinners approach and contribution

behavioral, brought behaviorism to the public at large

Behaviorists made their most important contributions to the study of ______ in psychology.


the computer metaphor is at the heart of the ______ approach


define cognitive psychology

the study of mental processes including thinking and memory

influence of the cognitive approach

the approach has been highly influential, and its impact remains

motorists talking on their cell phones, influences their driving. which psychology?


all are psychodynamic psychologists except:


Psychologist reflecting the _____ and _____ approaches have highlighted the importance of unconscious processing.

psychodynamic; cognitive

the use of reaction time methods to study mental events originated with the work of the _____ psychologists. These techniques are now frequently used in _____ psychology.

structuralist; cognitive

making an early contribution to the psychology of memory, Bartlett studied memory for _____. He found that _____.

stories; memory is influenced by one's existing knowledge

Bartlett's contribution

proposed a cognitive stage model of development

define social norm

a shared way of thinking or feeling

define culture

a common set of social norms

sequence of explanation in psychology, lowest to highest

biological, interpersonal, social/cultural

historical development of contemporary psychology

psychology has become more objective and scientific

define basic research

research that answers fundamental questions about behavior

define applied research

research that investigates issues that have implications for everyday life

relationship between basic and applied research

applied and basic influence each other

define empirical

based on systematic collection and analysis of data

define data

information collected through formal observation or measurement

scientific concepts in order of most specific to most general

data-->empirical-->scientific method

define replication

redoing and expanding previous research

define laws in physical science

principles that are so general that they apply to all situations

define theory

an integrated framework explaining/predicting the data/observations in a given domain

which is NOT one of of the characteristics of a good theory

a. a good theory is general
c. a good theory can be falsified
d. a good theory inspires future research

define parsimonious

provide the simplest outcomes
-NOT complicated

define falsifiable

measurable and able to be shown to be incorrect/disproved

relationship between theory and data

theory and data inform each other

define hypothesis

a specific prediction concerning the relationship between variables

types of scientific predictions/explanations in order of increasing generality


define variable

a behavior, event, or other characteristic that can take on different values

define conceptual variables

abstract ideas forming the basis of research hypotheses

Psychologists operationalize the _____ in a _____.

variables; hypothesis

define operational definition

a method of turning conceptual variables into measured variables
-MANY operational definitions are usually possible

ethical codes regulating the conduct of research have been developed by:

the federal government and scientific organizations

Trent, a doctoral student in psychology, is preparing his dissertation proposal. The review board at his university will approve his research if they determine that...

the scientific benefit outweighs the risk to the participants

which is NOT a requirement of ethical research on human participants

a. they mus be protected from physical or mental harm
b. must be assured that their participation is voluntary
c. must be aware of the general procedures before the study begins

deception in psychological research

it may be permissible, as long as alternatives are considered

informed consent includes:

-detailed explanation of study and procedures
-statement of potential risks
-assurance that participation is voluntary

define debriefing the participants

a detailed explanation of the hypotheses and goals of the study

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