Creating knowledge is to using knowledge as _____ is to ______.
research psychologist; psychologist practitioner
Which best describes the "everyday research" that we all perform when we try to understand thoughts and behavior?
It can lead us to believe that we know the causes of things when we really do not.
the tendency to think that we could have predicted things that we probably would not have been able to predict
One morning, Alan wakes to the news that a powerful earthquake occurred in California. "I told you the big one would hit this year!" he exclaims. Alan appears subject to the _______ bias.
"History is the most fundamental of all the humanities," lectures a professor early in the semester. In your textbook's terms, the professor's statement is a ______.
relationship between facts and values
research can sometimes provide facts that can help people develop their values
which of these statements is at the social/cultural level of explanation?
women experience more depression than men do
correctly match a challenge of studying psychology with an example
individual differences: some people have lower self esteem than others
research reports about free will...
people may believe that they have free will even when they do not
free will and contemporary empirical research
free will is an illusion; the strength of the illusion varies in different situations
behaviorist stance on nature vs nurture and free will vs determinism
strongly nurture; strongly determinism
Whereas the philosophers ___________ believed that humans possessed some innate knowledge, the philosopher ______ believed that all knowledge derived from experience.
Plato and Descartes; Aristotle
Descartes' view of the relationship between the mind and the body
the mind is different from the body
Wundt's contribution to psychology
-opened one of the first laboratories in psychology
uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements of psychological experience
a procedure in which an observer describes the simple elements of a complex experience in as much detail as possible
which does NOT identify one of the contributions of the psychodynamic approach?
a. it highlighted the important role of the unconscious
b. IT ORIGINATED THE METHOD OF INTROSPECTION IN PSYCHOLOGY
c. it pointed out that therapy can improve human lives
d. it underscored the lasting effects of childhood experiences
challenge of studying psychology that was especially problematic for the structuralists
the bases of our experiences are often outside our awareness
attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychology aspects that they currently possess
with respect to psychology of emotion, William James would be most interested in...
how emotions aid one's adaptation to the environment
Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection strongly influenced the ______ approach in psychology.
the fate of the functional approach to psychology
functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, but its ideas have become absorbed into the field of evolutionary psychology
define evolutionary psychology
the application of the Darwinian theory of natural selection to understanding behavior
the stereotype of psychology held by the person on the street accords most closely with the _______ approach.
influence of the psychodynamic approach
research has not supported some of its ideas, but the approach has had a lasting influence
evidence type used for foundation of Freud's psychodynamic theory
case studies of patients in psychotherapy
based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to study behavior itself
psychologist that studied conditioning of fear responses to a rabbit in boy named Little Albert
influence of the cognitive approach
the approach has been highly influential, and its impact remains
Psychologist reflecting the _____ and _____ approaches have highlighted the importance of unconscious processing.
the use of reaction time methods to study mental events originated with the work of the _____ psychologists. These techniques are now frequently used in _____ psychology.
making an early contribution to the psychology of memory, Bartlett studied memory for _____. He found that _____.
stories; memory is influenced by one's existing knowledge
historical development of contemporary psychology
psychology has become more objective and scientific
which is NOT one of of the characteristics of a good theory
a. a good theory is general
b. A GOOD THEORY IS COMPLEX
c. a good theory can be falsified
d. a good theory inspires future research
types of scientific predictions/explanations in order of increasing generality
define operational definition
a method of turning conceptual variables into measured variables
-MANY operational definitions are usually possible
ethical codes regulating the conduct of research have been developed by:
the federal government and scientific organizations
Trent, a doctoral student in psychology, is preparing his dissertation proposal. The review board at his university will approve his research if they determine that...
the scientific benefit outweighs the risk to the participants
which is NOT a requirement of ethical research on human participants
a. they mus be protected from physical or mental harm
b. must be assured that their participation is voluntary
c. must be aware of the general procedures before the study begins
d. MUST BE FULLY INFORMED OF THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH BEFORE IT BEGINS
informed consent includes:
-detailed explanation of study and procedures
-statement of potential risks
-assurance that participation is voluntary