Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes

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cycloalkanes
alkanes containing rings of carbon atoms
organic compounds
compounds containing carbon
CO, CO2, carbonates, and cyanides
considered inorganic compounds, although containing carbon
hydrogen and halogens
elements that have 1 covalent bond
sulfur and oxygen
elements that have 2 covalent bonds
nitrogen
element that has 3 covalent bonds
phosphorus
element that has either 3 or 5 covalent bonds
carbon
element that has 4 covalent bonds
isomers
compounds with SAME molecular formula but DIFFERENT structural formulas
functional group
unique reactive combination of atoms that differentiates molecules of organic compounds of one class from those of another
structural isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
expanded structural formula
structural molecular formula showing all the covalent bonds
condensed structural formula
structural molecular formula showing the general arrangement of atoms but without showing all the covalent bonds
hydrocarbon
organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
saturated hydrocarbon
another name for an alkane
alkane
a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds
normal alkane
alkane where all carbon atoms are aligned in a continuous chain
branched alkane
alkane in where there is atleast one carbon atom that is not part of a continuous chain
alkyl group
group differing by one hydrogen from an alkane
cycloalkane
alkane in which carbon atoms form a ring
cis-
on the same side, both up or both down (in GEOMETRIC ISOMERS)
trans-
on opposite sides, one up and one down (in GEOMETRIC ISOMERS)
hydrophobic
molecules that repel (or are insoluable in) water
unsaturated hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon containing one or more multiple bonds
alkene
hydrocarbon containing double bond(s)
alkyne
hydrocarbon containing triple bond(s)
aromatic hydrocarbon
organic compounds that contain the characteristic benzene ring or similar feature
hydrogeneration
reaction in which the addition of hydrogen takes place
polyunsaturated
applied to molecules with several double bonds; vegetable oils
polymerization
reaction that produces a polymer
polymer
very large molecule made up of repeating units
monomer
the starting material that becomes the repeating units of polymers
copolymer
an addition polymer formed by the reaction of two different monomers
phenyl group
a benzene ring with one hydrogen absent, C6H5--