Naming Alkanes

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meth-
1 carbon (prefix)
eth-
2 carbons (prefix)
pro-
3 carbons (prefix)
bu-
4 carbons (prefix)
pent-
5 carbons (prefix)
hex-
6 carbons (prefix)
hept-
7 carbons (prefix)
oct-
8 carbons (prefix)
non-
9 carbons (prefix)
dec-
10 carbons (prefix)
-ane
hydrocarbon with only single C-C bonds (suffix)
methyl group
-CH3
ethyl group
-C2H5
n-propyl group
-C3H7
n-butyl group
-C4H9
substituent
a group attached to the main chain (general name)
-ene
hydrocarbon including C=C bonds (suffix)
-yne
hydrocarbon including C≡C bonds (suffix)
isopropyl group
CH3C-HCH3
isobutyl group
(CH3)₂CHCH2-
sec-butyl group
CH3C-HCH2CH3
tert-butyl group
(CH3)₃C-
fluoro-
F- (prefix)
chloro-
Cl- (prefix)
bromo-
Br- (prefix)
iodo-
I- (prefix)
alcohol
-OH
ether
-O-
aldehyde
-CH=O
ketone
C=O between 2 other Cs
carboxyl group
-COH=O
ester
-C=O-OR
amine
-NH2
nitrile (cyanide)
-C≡N
unspecified halide
-X
unspecified hydrocarbon
-R
thiol
-SH
thioether
-S-