Ch.2 Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules

Draw the structure of a single bond, a double bond, and triple bond Predict the hybridization and geometry of the atoms in a molecule, and draw a 3D rep of the molecule Draw the resonance forms of a resonance hybrid, and predict its hybridization and geometry. Predict which resonance form is the major contributor. Identify constitutional isomers and stereoisomers, and predict which compds can exist as constitutional isomers and as cis-trans (geometric) isomers Identify polar and nonpolar molecul…
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Terms in this set (...)

acid chloride
An acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydroxyl group.
alcohol
A compound that contains a hydroxyl grp bonded to a carbon atom; R--OH
aldehyde
A carbonyl group with one allkyl grp and one H
alkanes
Hydrocarbons containing only single bonds
alkenes
Hydrocarbons containing 1+ C=C double bonds
alkyl group
A hydrocarbon group with only single bonds; an alkane with one hydrogen removed, to allow bonding to another group; symbolized by R.
amide
An acid derivative that contains a nitrogen atom instead of the hydroxyl grp of the acid
amine
An alkylated analogue of ammonia; R--NH₂, R₂NH, or R₃N
aromatic hydrocarbon/arenes
Hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring, a six-membered ring with three double bonds
bond dipole moment
A measure of the polarity of an individual bond in a molecule, defined as μ = 4.8 x d x δ.
carbonyl grp
The >C=O functional grp, as in a ketone or aldehyde
carboxyl grp
The --COOH functional grp, as in carboxylic acid
carboxylic acid
A compound that contains the carboxyl grp, --COOH
cis-trans isomers
(geometric isomers) Stereoisomers that differ in their cis-trans arrangement on a double bond or ring. The cis isomer has similar groups on the same side, and the tarns isomer has similar sequence.
cyano grp
The -C≡N functional group, as in a nitrile.
constitutional isomer
structural isomers, isomers whose atoms are connected differently; they differ in their bonding sequence.
dipole-dipole forces
Attractive intermoleecular forces resulting from the attraction of the positive and negative ends of the permeanent dipole moments of polar molecules
double bond
A bond containing four electrons between 2 nuclei. One pair forms a sigma bond, and the other a pi bond.
ester
An acid derivative with an alkyl grp replacing the acid proton.
ether
A cmpd with an oxygen bonded between 2 alkyl (or aromatic) grps. R-O-R'.
functional group
The reactive, nonalkane part of an organic molecule
hybrid atomic orbital
A directional orbital formed from a combination of s and p orbitals on the same atom
sp hybrid orbitals
give two orbitals with a bond angle of 180° (linear geometry)
sp² hybrid orbitals
give three orbitals with bond angles of 120° (trigonal geometry)
sp³ hybrid orbitals
give four orbitals with bond angle of 109.5° (tetrahedral geometry)
hydrocarbons
compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen
alkanes
hydrocarbons containing only single bonds
alkenes
hydrocarbons containing 1+ C=C double bonds
alkynes
Hydrocarbons containing 1+ C≡C triple bonds
cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, cycloalkynes
alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes in the form of a ring.
aromatic hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring, a six membered ring with three double bonds
hydrogen bond
A particularly strong attraction between a nonbonding pair of electrons and an electrophilic O-H or N-H hydrogen. Hydrogen bonds have bond energies of abt 20 kJ/mol compared with about 400 kJ/mol for typical C-H bonds.
hydroxyl group
The -OH functional grp, as in an alcohol.
isomers
Different compounds with the same molecular formula.
ketone
A carbonyl grp with 2 alkyl groups attached
London dispersion forces
Intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of correlated temporary dipole moments induced in adjacent molecules.
molecular dipole moment
The vector sum of the bond dipole moments (and any nonbonding pairs of electrons) in a molecule; a measure of the polarity of a molecule
stereoisomer
differ only in how their atoms are oriented in space