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Social Studies Ch.18
Terms in this set (72)
how did radical republicans gain power in congress?
republicans gained control of congress with the election of 1866. radical republicans proposed the 14th amendment. many northerners agreed with the need for stronger measures and supported the republicans, who won majorities in both houses of congress. or northerners were outraged with the violence against freedmen in the south, particualy the killing of 34 freedmen in new orleans.
why was president johnson impeached?
he was impeached because cogressional leaders / radical republicans thought that he was failing to enforcereconstruction measures.or thought he was to lenient on the south reconstruction. or he had fired many military leaders involved in reconstruction.
what were 2 rights that were freedmen were denied by black codes?
could not vote, could not own guns,could not serve on a jury.
what hapenned in memphis, tennessee in 1866 that angered republicans in congress?
whites burned down blacks' homes, schools, and churches.
members of congress during reconstruction who wanted to ensure that freedmen received th eright to vote
who were the leaders of the radical republicans?
what law did congress pass to fight the black codes?
civil rights act of 1866
what did the law do?
it made african americans citizens
what had the 1857 dred scott supreme court decision said?
that blacks were not citizens
1868 amendment to the US constitution that guarantees equal protection of the laws
what did the 14th amendent do besides guarentee equal prtection under the law?
made anyone born in the us a citizen.
reduced the representation in congress of any state that denied any male citizen 21 or older the right to vote
what happenned in new orleans in 1866?
34 freedmen were beaten to death by a white mob
period beginning in 1867,when the republicans who had control in both houses of congress, took charge of reconstruction
1867 law that threw out the southern governments that had refused to ratify thr fourteenth amendment
what were the four provisions of the reconstruction acts of 1867?
disband state governments
write new constitutions
ratify 14h amendment
freedmen/african americans must be allowed to vote
divided the south into 5 military disticts
army commanders were given broad powers to enforce reconstruction
to bring charges of serious wrong doing against a public official
who became president after andrew jackson?
ulysses s grant
amendment to the US constitution that forbids any state to deny african americans the right to vote because of race
what are 2 reasons given by the textbook for republicans supporting the 15th amenment?
freedmens service during the civil war
it was wrong to let african americans vote
african americans would vote for republicans
what challenges did reconstruction goverments face?
reconstruction governments faced several challenges. they needed to raise money to pay for the rebuilding of railroads,telegragh lines,roads,and bridges. they raised taxes. the south had low taxes, so this was very unpopular. reconstruction governments also faced the challenge of corruption. some legislatures were diverting funds to pay their personal debts. corruption was also very unpopular.
Explain what sharecropping is and how many southerners become locked into a cycle of poverty by it
the system of sharecropping adopted in the south after the civil war led many southerners to be locked into a cycle of poverty. after the war there was little money in the south. both freedmen and poor whites rented farm land from the planters and paid their rent with a share of their crops. they also got seeds, fertilizer, and tools from the planter on credit. these 2 would be paid for with shares from their crops. often the harvest would not provide enough to pay off their debts to the planter and the freedmen and poor whites would be left in debts.
what were the groups that came to power in the south during radical reconstruction?
white southern republicans(scalawags)
northerners who went south(carpetbaggers)
what type of people were the white southern republicans?
white southern who supported the republicans during reconstruction
according to the southerners, why did northerners move to the south?
to profit off the southerners misery
uncomplimentary nickname for a northerner who went to the south after the civil war.
what were 2 other reasons that northerners moved to the south?
northern soliers has seen the rich land during the war and wanted to farm it.
others wanted to help the freedmen
what was the consequece of large numbers of african americans voting in the south?
african americans were elected for office.
who were some of the notable african americsans that served in national office?
hiram revels and blanche k. bruce both served as senators for mississippi.
during reconstruction, white southerners who resisted change.
what did consertatives want?
they wanted power to stay in the hands of whites
ku klux klan
secret society organized after the civil war to reasert supremacy by means of violence.
identify three things that the kkk had did.
murdered african americans
murdered whites who supported african americans
wore white robes with hoods that concealed their identities
what action did congress take in response to the violence of the kkk?
congress made it a crime to use force to keep men from voting
what did southern reconstruction state governments accomplish?
they built schools, railroads, telegraph lines, bridges and roads.
why were many southerners discontent with these governments?
they raised taxes and there was much corruption
when slavery ended what were freedmen given?
nothing but freedmen
where did most of the freedmen end up living and working?
on the plantations where they haad been slaves
person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop
how did the election of 1876 lead to the end of reconstruction?
reconstruction ended as aresult of the election 1876. rutherford b. hayes won the presidential election of 1876 by making a deal to end reconstruction if he was awarded disputed electorial votes
explain how the grandfather clauses kept freedmen from voting
grandfather clauses kept freedmen from voting bt exempting only whites from takinf a literacy test to be able to vote. Most freedmen could not read, so they could not pass the test and thus could not vote
why did the public begin to loose faith in the republican party?
widespread corruption involving republicans
what did the amnesty act of 1872 do?
restored the right to vote to nearly all white men
what was the consequence of the amnesty act of 1872?
the south voted solidly democratic
what were two long lasting consequences of reconstruction on southern politics?
next hundred years the south remained a stronghold of the democratic party
black southerners steadily lost their rights
tax required before a person can vote
why did the poll tax keep many freedmen from voting?
most freedmen were poor and could afford to pay the poll and so could not vote
examination to see if a person can read and write; used in the past to restrict voting rights
why did the literacy test keep many freedmen from voting?
most frredmen could not read and thus could not pass a literacy test.
law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
jim crow laws
laws that separate people of different races in public places in the south
what specific types of public places were subject to segregation under the jim crow laws?
plessy v. ferguson
an 1896 court in which the US supreme court ruled that segregation in public facilities was legal as long as the facilities were equal
term used to describe the south in the late 1800s when efforts were made to expand the economy by building up industry
what 3 specific new economic activities arose in the "new south"
mining of coal, mining of iron, mining of copper
describe 2 post war problems that the south faced
the south was destroyed, the war had been primarily fought in the south. the south had suffered physical destruction. the south faced what was to become the former slaves. millions of former slaves nneeded food, shelter, employment and education.
what early reconstruction effort was created and what did it do?
president lincoln and congress agreed on the freedoms burea. it provided assistance to freedmen and poor whites. it gave food and clothing to former slaves. it tried to find them jobs.it also provided medical care for millioons of people.
why did republicans in congress oppose president johnson reconstruction plan?
it was too lenient. confederate leaders were elected to congress. republicans in congresswere outraged and refused to let these former confederates take their seats in congress. freedmen were not guaranteed the right to vote.
who were the freedmen
what were two things had freedman been forbidden to do when they had been slaves
owning property/ learning to read and write
rebuilding of the south after the civil war
Ten percent plan
Lincoln's plan taht allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the US
what is amnesty
a government pardon
an 1864 plan for reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office to anyone who had voluteered to fight for the confederacy
government agency founded during reconstruction to help former slaves
what were 5 specific things the freedmen's bureau did to help freedmen or poor whites
gave food to freedmen
gave clothes to freedmen
helped freedmen find jobs
provided medical care
set up a public school system in the south
who became president after lincoln
what were two of the requirements of johnson's reconstruction plan
a majority of voters(white men) in each southern state had to swear loyalty to the union.
each southern state had to ratify(approve) the thirteenth amendment
what did the thirteenth amendment do
banned slavery throughout the US
what early(while lincoln was president)reconstruction effort(government agency) was created, and what did it do(in general)
an early reconstruction effort that president lincoln and congress agreed on was the freedmen's bureau.it provided assistance to freedmen and poor whites. the bureau gave food and clothing to former slaves. It tried to find jobs. it also provided basic medical care to over one million people.It also set up public schools in the south
why did republicans in congress oppose president johnson's reconstruction plan
republicans in congress opposed johnson's plans because it was too lenient. Under johnson's reconstruction plan former confederate leaders were elected to congress.republicans in congress were outraged and refused to let these former confederates take their seats in congress.Under johnson's plan freedmen were not guaranteed the right to vote.
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