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136 terms

Metabolism & Blood

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Catabolism
In discussing "metabolism" we emphasized that the breaking down process is known as
A + B -> AB
Which one of the following would symbolize an "anabolic" reaction?
loss of hydrogens 2 at a time
Which one of the following would best describe "biological oxidation?"
NADH2
Which one of the following would represent the reduced form of NAD?
hexokinase
The enzyme that was emphasized as being the "primer" for glucose was:
NAD
is the primary oxidizing agent in biological systems
absence, less
Anaerobic occurs in the ? of O2 and produces ? energy (ATP) for the cell than aerobic respiration.
NAD
A molecule that moves electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain is:
Lactic Acid, Cori
In the absence of O2 pyruvic acid is converted to ? , and most of this is dealt with via the ? cycle.
COOH-C=O-CH3
Which one of the following chemical structures would represent "pyruvic" acid?
False
The "net" gain of ATP in glycolysis is 4.
alpha ketoglutaric
Which one of the following was emphasized as being a "5" carbon acid?
isocitric
Which one of the following was emphasized as being the first to lose a carbon?
NADH2, FADH2
________ & __________are the compounds that enter the electron transport chain
cytochromes
The iron containing compounds in the ETC that that accept electrons are known as ?.
decarboxylation
The term for the loss of CO2 by pyruvic acid is ?.
three
Once O2 enters the metabolic process that we discussed in class, how many times did we see CO2 removed from a molecule that was involved in the process?
succinic & fumaric
FAD is involved in the Kreb's cycle between which two of the following "players?"
Glycolysis
breakdown of glucose into 2 pyruvic acid molecule, req's input of 2 ATP molecules, produces 2 NADH2 molecules, doesn't req. oxygen
Mitochrondria
Both the Kreb's cycle and the Electron Transport reactions occur in which organelle of the cell?
Kreb & ETC
Oxygen is needed in
CO2, ATP, NADH2, FADH2
The four products that are eliminated from the Kreb's cycle are:
the acetyl group
Which one of the following was emphasized as being a "2" carbon compound associated with the Kreb's cycle?
succinyl CoA & succinic
We observed that there is one molecule of ATP generated for each cycle of the Kreb's cycle. This occurs between ? & ? molecules.
citric; a-ketoglutaric; succinyl CoA; succinic
Which of the partial lists of acids in the Kreb's cycle is listed in the proper sequence?
H2O
When oxygen is consumed in the electron transport chain there is a resultant formation of:
insulin
Glycogenesis occurs under the influence of which one of the following hormones?
between meals
Which of the following do you suppose would be the most likely time for glycogenolysis to occur?
stored in adipose tissue
Lipids that are not used by the body are usually:
HGH; glucagon; epinephrine
Which of the following hormones are involved in catabolizing fats?
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
In lipogenolysis we saw that glycerol is first converted to:
stored primarily as triglycerides
Lipids are
fatty acids
Beta oxidation is a term that has reference to the catabolism of:
False
It was emphasized that the carbon fragments from beta oxidation can be converted to glucose.
True
Glycogen can be converted to free glucose in the liver because the liver contains phosphatase.
False
It was emphasized that amino acid fragments must go through the process of glycolysis before they can enter the Kreb's cycle.
ornithine, liver
NH3 is converted to urea via the ? cycle, and this process occurs in the ?.
protein metabolism
Transamination & deamination are terms associated with:
Amino Acids
classified as essential or nonessential; synthesized in a transamination reaction; source of energy; converted to keto acids
CAD
As we began our study of the cardiovascular system, we emphasized that the #1 cause of death in the US is:
intracellular fluid
All of the following are considered ECF (extracellular fluids) except:
intercellular fluid; tissue fluid
Interstitial fluid is also known as:
viviparous
Which one of the following terms would describe the developmental pattern for nourishment of the human organism?
chorion
Which one of the extraembryonic membranes is responsible for formation of most of the placenta.?
yolk sac
Angioblast cells first show up in the:
angioblasts
We emphasized that "blood islands" are actually masses of
endothelial cells
"Primitive stem cells", which resemble nucleated RBC's, are derived from:
mesenchyme
the fifth week of embryological development it was shown that blood is produced:
hematology
The branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood-forming tissue, and the disorders
associated with them is called ?.
CO2; metabolic wastes; oxygen; hormones
Blood carries:
NaHCO3
When discussing COPD and CO2 transport by the blood, we emphasized that most of the CO2 is carried in the form of ?.
7.35-7.45
Normal pH of the blood is approximately:
5-6 liters
Blood volume for the average male is ?.
globulin
Which of the following would not be a formed element?
primitive tubular heart
During embryonic and fetal life which of the following would NOT be a site for blood cell production?
formation of blood cells
Hemopoiesis may best be described as:
hematocrit
The percentage of red blood cells in blood is termed:
oxygen transport
It is given that RBC's have no nucleus. This allows for their internal space to be used for:
True
The most numerous of all white blood cells are neutrophils.
bone marrow
The pluripotent stem cell is found in the ?.
early erythroblast
In erythropoiesis we found that Hb production begins in in which one of the following stages?
lymphocyte
Which one of the following is not derived from the myeloid stem cell?
normoblast
Which one of the stages in erythrocyte production is characterized by nuclear disintegration?
B-lymphocytes
Which one of the following is responsible for our "humoral immunity"?
vit K
Which one of these substances is not required for normal red blood cell production?
urobilinogen
In the large intestine bacteria convert bilirubin into:
Intrinsic Factor
Vit B12 is important in the synthesis of DNA synthesis in the production of RBC's. What
substance is necessary for the absorption of Vit B12.
erythropoietin
The hormone that is produced by the kidneys and is instrumental in the production of RBC's is ?.
O2 level
Which one of the following is a key factor in dictating the production and release of the hormone in question
#9.
.5%
The reticulocyte count is very important in hematology work. If the reticulocyte count is less than ? of the total number of RBC's then erythropoiesis is considered to be too slow.
macrophage
Which one of the following cells was discussed as being phagocytic?
transferrin
Iron from hemoglobin is transported to different sites via the blood. Which one of the following is the transport vehicle for iron?
albumin
Bilirubin is transferred in the blood attached to ?.
erythroblastosis fetalis
Which one of the following has reference to a "hemolytic" type of anemia?
hematocrit
The percentage of red blood cells in blood is termed:
basketball players
In which of the following people may an elevated hematocrit be expected?
aplastic
Bone marrow destruction as in the case of radiation poisoning from nuclear fallout can result in which type of anemia?
neutrophil
The white blood cell that most often referred to as the polymorphonuclear leucocyte is the ?
basophils
The white blood cells that release large amounts of histamine and heparin are:
polycythemia vera
Which one of the following was emphasized as being a characteristic of bone cancer?
basophils
Heparin, which is an anticoagulant, is produced naturally by which one of the following cells?
monocyte
Which one of the following leucocytes is an "agranulocyte?"
gamma globulins
Immunoglobulins belong to:
lymphocytes
Antibodies are derived from which one of the following cells?
neutrophil
Which one of the following was especially emphasized as being a polymorphonuclear leucocyte?
methylene blue
Which one of the "stains" was mentioned with respect to the basophils?
TH cell
The cell type that would be indicative of "cell mediated" immunity would be the:
lymphocytic leukemia
The type of leukemia that is characterized by sudden onset and poor prognosis would most likely be:
come from megakaryocytes; cell fragments; surface molecules that attach to collagen; play an important role in clot formation
Platelets:
platelet adhesion; platelet release reaction; platelet aggregation;
processes in platelet plug formation:
protein
The von Willebrand factor is a ? which anchors platelets to underlying collagen
platelets
Fibrinogen receptors are associated with ? and they bind to fibrinogen
fibrinogen
A constituent of blood plasma that is ultimately responsible for forming the network of fibers in a clot is:
Thrombocytopenia
? is the term which indicates a decrease in the number of platelets.
triglycerides
Lipids are found primarily in blood plasma in the form of:
alpha globulins; beta globulins
Plasma proteins that assist in the transport of lipids and fat soluble vitamins are ?.
magnesium
Which one of the following ions is a cation?
vascular constriction
The first stage that was mentioned in the process of hemostasis was ?.
ADP; thromboxanes
Activated platelets release which of the following?
proaccelerin
There are 12 plasma clotting factors. Factor #V was emphasized as being ?.
AHF
Which one of the following clotting factors is not synthesized by the liver?
Pf3
Which one of the platelet factors was described as being "phospholipids."
damaged endothelial cells of blood vessels
Which one of the following would represent the initial step in the "Intrinsic Pathway" of blood clotting?
begins with the release of thromboplastin;leads to the production of prothrombinase; requires Ca++;
The extrinsic clotting pathway:
prothrombinase
What substance is formed in the common pathway of blood clotting that is necessary for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin?
XIII
Which one of the clotting factors is necessary for stabilizing fibrin threads?
activated factor XII; prothrombinase; thrombin, fibrinogen
lists the chemicals in the order they are used during clot formation.
plasmin
Which one of the plasma enzymes is responsible for fibrinolysis?
thrombus
A stationary clot in an unbroken vessel is called (a,an
inactivates thrombin
Heparin is one of the anticoagulants that we discussed. It "works" by:
platelet plug formation
Aspirin would inhibit which one of the following blood clotting mechanisms?
True
Hemophilia refers to several several different hereditary deficiencies of coagulation.
False
One of the "clotting tests" mentioned in class was prothrombin time. The normal time for this clotting procedure is about 6 minutes
coumadin
Which one of the following was mentioned as being an antagonist Vit K, which results in the lowering of the level of prothrombin.
tPA
In the Newsweek article on "Strokes" which one of the following was emphasized as being the only FDA approved drug for dissolving blood clots in stroke patients?
IAi
Your professor is heterozygous for type A blood. He knows this because his daughter has Type O blood. Based on this information Westmoreland's genotype is:
Carboxyl
C=O
cytosol
liquid part of cytoplasm
cholestorol
lipids
glycogen
animal starch
insulin
instrumental to converting glucose to glycogen
glycerol
3 carbon alcohols
glycerol + 3 fatty acids
triglycerides
Blood
connective tissue
spleen
lymph organ
heparin
inactivates thrombin. (anticoagulant)
thrombus
clot
embolus
moving of the thrombus (clot)
anticoagulant
prevents blood clot
dicumarol (coumadin)
antagonist to Vit K. & lowers level of prothrobin in the liver (Warfin)
aspirin
interfers with platelet plug formation
Prothrombin time (PT)
length of time for blood to clot
Platelet Adhesion
platelets bind to the collagen (von Willebrand factor)
Platelet Release Reaction
after they bind to collagen and release ADP and thromboxanes causing platelets to stick together.
Platelet Aggregation
activitated platelets have fibrinogen receptor that can bind to fibrinogen causing the plug formation
hemostasis
Blood clotting