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assumes that an objective reality exists "out there" that can be discovered by gathering empirical evidence
sociologists use ___ to label aspects of social life like "the family", "the economy", and "social class"
specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable
operationalize a variable
an apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable
holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
rejects the positivist claim that researchers should try to be "objective" and limit their work to studying the status quo
often identify with their research subjects personally and encourage them to help decide what to study and how to do the work
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male or female
researchers use data drawn from people of only one sex to support conclusions about "humanity" or "society"
a subject reacting to the sex of the researcher which interferes with the research operation
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview
researchers draw a sample from the population at random so that every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected
a questionnaire that offers a narrow range of responses that makes it fairly easy to analyze the results, but can also distort findings
questionnaire type allowing subjects to respond freely, expressing various shades of opinion
a survey in which the examiner mails or e-mails questionnaires to respondents and asks them to complete it and send it back
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
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