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The sun releases energy across the electromagnetic spectrum. Which forms of electromagnetic energy from the sun affect climate?
short wave radiation, such as visible light
which of the following statements best captures how 3-6 feet of sea-level rise will affect 3 locations shown?
Miami- many other low-lying areas across the globe are also threatened by sea-level rise
some people argue that solar radiation, rather than human-caused CO2 emissions, has had a greater effect on climate over the past century. In other words they argue that solar radiation has been a stronger positive climate forcing that CO2. based on the graph, how do the forcings from CO2 and solar radiation compare?
the CO2 forcing is about 35 times greater that the solar radiation forcing.
how much greater is the estimated warming from human-caused forcings than from natural forcings?
the estimated warming from human-caused forcings is about ten times greater than the estimated warming from natural forces
if you were given the task of deciding what to do to reduce overall warming, which forcing would you focus your efforts on reducing in order to have the largest potential influence?
which of the following forcings would we have to intensify in order to cool the climate?
aerosol cloud effects
across the scenarios, in which of the following environments is the largest amount of warming expected to occur by 2100?
on land, in the interior of continents
in the scenario where the global average surface temperature is expected to increase by an average of 2.2 degrees Celsius by 2100, approximately how much are the interiors of the continents expected to warm?
between 2-5 degrees celsius
across the scenarios, in which region are the largest changes in surface temperature expected to occur?
examine the Arctic on the map that displays an average surface temperature increase of 3.7 degrees celsius. how much more than the global average surface temperature change is this specific area predicted to warm in this scenario?
it will warm about 0.3-8.3 degrees celsius more than the global average. exactly 3.7 degrees.
what line of evidence most strongly suggests that current global climate change is a result of increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere rather than increased solar radiation?
greenhouse gases accumulate in the stratosphere, causing the observed increases in temperature of this layer of the atmosphere.temperatures in the stratosphere are actually decreasing, suggesting that the atmosphere is not warming because of increased solar radiation
which of the following choices lists molecules in order from most to least powerful in terms of their climate-forcing impacts during the 20th century?
CO2 > methane > halocarbons > aerosols
which of the following areas has experienced the greatest surface temperature increase since 1900?
Siberia and Northern Canada
scientist use several types of analysis to demonstrate that human activities are responsible for warming. which of the following is not an analysis that shows that human activity is responsible for warming?
the measurement of global temperatures using satellite observations to determine that global temperatures are rising.
some people have said that water vapor is a more powerful greenhouse gas than industrially produced gases such as CO2, and for this reason we shouldn't worry about the rising concentrations of industrially produced greenhouse gases. what is wrong with this claim?
water vapor has short residence time in the atmosphere and therefore cannot serve as a forcing for climate change
all of the following are predicted to directly result from rising global temperatures except
increased acidity of oceans
as polar sea ice disappears due to warming, this will result in ____________ at Earth's surface, which then functions as a ___________ to climate change.
more energy absorption, positive feedback
based on your understanding of projections of future climate change, which of the following statements is true?
the amount of 21st century warming will depend to a large degree on the speed with which we reduce the emission of greenhouse gases
which of the following describes the global warming potential of a gas?
the amount of heat a gas can trap in the atmosphere in a certain amount of time
which of the following scenarios would result in a negative feedback loop?
as the atmospheric CO2 level and temperature increase, more Carbon is available for plants to take up during photosynthesis, causing increased uptake of CO2 by plants.
which of the following is an example of an aerosol?
greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere when
shortwave radiation from the sun is absorbed by the Earth's surface and reradiated as infrared radiation
one of the projections of the effects of climate change is an increase in the intensity of extreme events such as floods and droughts. would this be important to human society why or why not?
yes, extreme events are difficult to plan for and place a large amount of stress on human systems and infrastructure.
one concern with a warming climate is how it will affect ecosystems. in one scenario that scientists are studying, a warming Arctic climate will melt permafrost, which will then stimulate the decomposition of frozen organic matter, thus increasing the release of large quantities of CO2 and CH4 and causing further warming of the climate. this scenario would be an example of the following?
a positive feedback loop
all of the following are associated with the warmest periods of the past 500 million years of Earth's history except
extinction rates far exceeding modern-day extinction rates
what is a potential regional benefit of a slight increase in atmospheric temperatures during the 21st century?
improved agriculture would allow for increased food production
urban heat islands occur in metropolitan areas where the air temperature is several degrees warmer than the surrounding rural areas. how can the concept of a climate change forcing be used to explain the urban heat island phenomena?
urban areas contain vast expanses of paved surfaces and other surfaces that absorb shortwave radiation and reiterate it as heat. rural areas tend to be more heavily vegetated and so reflect more shortwave radiation
which of the following is a greenhouse gas hat does not naturally occur in the atmosphere?
the combustion of coal produces___________, which tend(s) to have a cooling effect on the climate
which of the following greenhouse gases is short-lived and exhibits the most variation in atmospheric concentrations from season to season?
which of the following scenarios is projected by the IPCC if we were to dramatically reduce our greenhouse gases immediately?
continued global warming, but less warming than would occur without greenhouse gas reduction
what would happen to global temperatures if there were no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
Earth would be very cold.
all of the following are mitigation strategies to deal with climate change except
building sea walls to protect coastal areas from storm surges.
the thawing of the permafrost from rising temperatures in the Arctic is expected
to accelerate climate change via a positive feedback loop as carbon dioxide and methane are released from these soils
general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that
Earths warming trend cannot be explained solely by natural forcings
Analyses indicate that only ~2% of the net climate change forcing of the atmosphere since 1750 is a result of_____________.
natural changes in solar energy reaching earth
Albedo is the measure of a surface's ability to reflect solar radiation. which of the following has the highest albedo?
the snow on top of a dormant volcano
all of the following are proxy records of global temperature except
precipitation is generally expected to _________ across the globe during the 21st century, and areas over water are expected to experience a _________ temperature increase than areas over land.
which of the following most accurately describes global temperature patterns over the last 12,000 years?
temperatures increased over a period of 2 to 3 thousand years, leveled off, declined gradually over the past several thousand years, and then recently increased rapidly to the highest level of that time period.
how do we know what global temperatures were before we had a widespread network of thermometers?
we can determine this by looking at the patterns of tree rings or the isotopes of certain elements that vary with temperature.
all of the following are components of Milankovich cycles except
changes in the distance and shape of the moons orbit around Earth
which of the following most accurately describes average global temperature changes since 1900?
average global temperatures climbed during the early 1900s and late 1900s, with a 20-year period of relative stability between 1950-1970
the younger Dryas involved a cooling of 10 degrees celsius in the north atlantic region that occurred over a period of ______________. this cooling event was caused by _____________.
a decade; the melting of large ice sheets in North America
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