NASM STUDY COMPLETE
Terms in this set (201)
Information that is gathered from a prospective client to give the health and fitness professional feedback regarding personal history such as occupation, lifestyle and medical background.
A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a specific goal.
A study that uses principals of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body.
A substance that completes or makes an addition to daily dietary intake.
Proprioceptively enriched environment
An unstable (but controlled) environment where exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms
Exercises that use quick, powerful movements involving an eccentric contraction immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction.
Fastest growing health problem in the US
The Nervous System
It is a conglomeration of billions of cells forming nerves that are specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body
nervous system, skeletal system and muscular system
Muscular pump that rhythmically contracts to push blood throughout the body
Dynamic Joint Stabilization
The ability of the kinetic chain to stabilize a joint during movement.
The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible.
The lumbo-pelvic -hip complex and the thoracic and cervical spine, where the body's center of gravity is located
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint.
The sum of the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and uses food substances.
Acts as a medium to deliver and collect essential products to and from the tissues of the body.
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Chronic metabolic disorder, in which the body's ability to produce insulin or to utilize glucose is altered
Rate of force production
How quickly a muscle can generate force
Positioned above a point of reference.
Dynamic Range of Motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range efficiently.
General Adaptation Syndrome
The kinetic chain's ability to adapt to stresses placed on it.
Training environment that provides heightened stimulation to proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors.
A system comprised of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
Rate of Force Production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed.
Positioned below a point of reference.
The ability to sense changes in either external or internal environments
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically and control the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Training environment that is unstable as can safely be controlled by an individual.
A hollow tube that allows blood to be transported to and from the heart
A low intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow.
blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
The ability to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces appropriate response
One complete movement of a single exercise.
Positioned farthest from the center of the body.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
The capability to be elongated or stretched.
Adequate Intake (AI)
A recommended average daily nutrient intake level, based on observed approximations or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group of healthy people. This measure is used when an RDA cannot be determined.
A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and/or a lack of core and joint stability
Low intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow
The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest, except the lungs.
Neuromuscular response to sensory information
Dynamic Functional Flexibility
Multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimal neuromuscular efficiency throughout the full range of motion.
Anterior (or Ventral)
On the front of the body.
The initial reaction to a stressor.
The precursor to osteoporosis. indicated by reduced bone mass.
The smallest blood vessel that is the location where substances such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products are exchanged between tissues
A group of consecutive repetitions.
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between bones, resulting in porosity and fragility.
Posterior (or dorsal)
On the back of the body.
Postural distortion patterns
Predictable pattern of muscle imbalances
The Central Nervous System
Sensory/Afferent neurons transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to
Set of two exercises that are performed back to back without any rest time between them
The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor.
The functional unit of the nervous system
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases.
Comprised of the heart, the blood it pumps, and the blood vessels that transport the blood from the heart to the tissues of the body
Degeneration of cartilage in joints
Transmits information from one neuron to another
Positioned near the middle of the body
Prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce this distress to the system.
The muscle that acts as the main source of motive movement
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages
Inflammatory condition that mainly affects the joints.
Transmits information from cns to effector sites
Refers to a position relatively farther away from the midline of the body or towards the outside of the body.
Power: explosive (x/x/x) Strength: Moderate (2/0/2) Stabilization: Slow, emphasizing eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle groups. (4/2/1)
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
The cumulative neural input to the central nervous system from mechanoreceptors that senses position and limb movement
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart
Central Nervous System
Composed of the brain and spinal cord & it interprets information
Degenerative joint disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues.
Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses) which make up a large portion of animal foods.
Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
Principle of Specificity or (SAID) or Specific Adaption to Imposed Demands.
Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.
The ability of the body's nerves to effectively send messages to the body's muscles
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow optimal levels of motor unit recruitment and synchronization within a muscle.
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when synergists take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.
_____ are chambers located inferiorly on either side of the heart.
Any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may spread to several sites and are likely to recur after attempted removal.
relay info to and from brain
12 cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and sensory receptors
Positioned on the same side of the body
Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow all muscles to work together with proper activation and timing between them.
The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly, while maintaining proper posture
The motions of joints in the body
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves.
Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
The ability to react and change body position with maximum rate of force production, in all planes of motion, from all body positions, during functional activities.
Restrictive lung disease
The condition where ability to expand lungs is decreased
An individuals level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, which is usually expressed as a percentage.
Obstructive Lung Disease
condition where lung tissue is normal, but flows are restricted
EPOC or excess post exercise oxygen consumption.
The state in which the body metabolism is elevated after exercise. It has been shown that splitting the training session into multiple session has the greatest impact
sensory receptor responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues. muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, joint receptors
Refers to the energy demand placed on the body.
The bending of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to decrease.
Information that is measurable like heart rate or waist size.
Fibers that are sensitive to change in length of muscle and rate of that change, major sensory organs of muscle. parallel to muscle fibers. transmit info to cns when stretched. causes muscle to contract to prevent overstretching/ stretching too fast.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external force.
The exhalation of air during the process of breathing
The Straightening of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to increase.
A group of compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols.
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.
Golgi Tendon Organs
Sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change. musculotendinous junction. sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of tension change. causes relaxation to prevent xs stress/injury.
Looks at how chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy
The process when neural impulses that sense tension is greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
An action that occurs in the presence of oxygen
Constantly repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
In and around joint capsule. Responds to pressure, acceleration and deceleration of joint. signals extreme joint positions. Initiates reflexive inhibitory response in surrounding muscles.
Movement of a body part away from the middle of the body (in the frontal plane).
skull, rib cage, vertebral column 80 bones
Cellular structure that serves as a storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body for energy
Movement of a body part towards the middle of the body (in the frontal plane).
States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress.
The ability to exert maximal force in the shortest amount of time
The system of the body responsible for taking in oxygen, excreting carbon dioxide, and regulating the relative compositions of the blood
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.
portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities
The ability of the body to produce low levels of force and maintain them for extended periods.
Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point on tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 20 sec
The ability of the body to maintain postural equilibrium and support joints during movements.
The inhalation of air during the process of breathing
An action that is not dependent on oxygen for proper execution
Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.
The ability of the body to repeatedly produce high levels of force for prolonged periods.
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension
Active isolated Stretching
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
These form junctions that are connected by muscles and connective tissue.
The maximum force that a muscle can produce in a single, voluntary effort, regardless of velocity.
Sites where movement occurs as a result of muscle contraction.
The number of training sessions performed during a specified period (usually 1 week)
Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries
The time frame of a workout (including warm-up and cool-down) or the length of time spent in one phase of training.
The active extension of a muscle, using force production and momentum, to move the joint through the full available range of motion uses reciprocal inhibition 1 set of 10 reps should be done 3-10 exercises
The process of choosing appropriate exercises for a client's program.
Eccentric Muscle Action
The lengthening of the muscle to a resting length.
The specific outline, created by a fitness professional to meet a client's goals that details the form of training, length of time, future changes and specific exercises to be performed.
The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
Generalized training plan that spans 1 year to show when the client will progress between phases.
Isometric Muscle Action
No visible movement with or against resistance. Dynamically stabilizes force.
The alignment and function of all components of the kinetic chain at any given moment.
Concentric Muscle Action
Moving in the opposite direction of force. Accelerates or produces force while contracting the muscle
Flat/indented portion of bone which can be a muscle attachment site. fossa, sulcus
An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
Maintaining a state of balance in the alignment of the kinetic chain.
The length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force.
Performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other, in a vertical manner down the template.
The ability of the nervous system to communicate effectively with the muscular system.
Little or no movement.
No joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue
Performing all sets of an exercise (or body part) before moving on to the next exercise (or body part)
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach, also known as condyle, epicondyle, tubercle, and trochanter
The ability of the neuromuscular system to contract eccentrically, isometrically, and concentrically in all three planes of motion.
Muscle groups moving together (synergisticly) to produce movement around a joint.
Postural Distortion Patterns
Predictable occurrences of muscle imbalances caused by altered movement patterns.
Movement of the bones around the joints
The ability of any force to cause rotation around an axis
The manner in which the nervous, skeletal, and muscular system interact to produce a mechanical response to incoming sensory information.
Joint motion: roll, slide, spin
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.
Information that the nervous system utilizes to gather information about the environment to produce movement.
The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing proper motor response.
The Muscular System
Muscles generate internal tension that, under the control of the nervous system, manipulates the bones of our body to produce movements.
Repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements.
greatest capacity for motion
80 percent of joints
The use of sensory information and sensoriomotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning
The process where by sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, miror, or heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment.
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
slow to heal, adapt
primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability (static, dynamic), input to nervous system, guidance and limitation of improper joint movement. made of collagen and varying amounts of elastin. poor vascularity
Attaches muscle to bone
produces contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
Functional unit of muscle
Motor neuron and muscle fibers it innervates
Vessels that transport blood back to the heart
The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity
Number of training sessions in a given timeframe
Integrated cardio resiratory training
Training that involves placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system
The level of demand that a given activity places on the body
The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity
The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in
Self Myofascial Release
A form of flexability that focuses on the fascial system in the body
An instrament with tow adjustable legs to measure thikness of a skin fold
Integrated fitness profile
A systemating problem solving method that provides the fitness professional with a bisis for making educated dicisions about exercise and acute varible seleciton
Refers to a position nearest the center of the body or point of reference
The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previouse esperiences to produce a motor response
The abilityof the body to produce low level of force and maintain them for extended period of time.
Activation of the transverse abdominis, mulifidus, pelvic sloor muscles and diaphram to provide core stabilization.
Generalized training plan that spans 1 monthand shows which phases will be requied each day of the week
Time taken to recuperate between sets or exercises
Training plan of specific workouts that spans 1 week to show which exercises are required each day of the week
Root cause analysis
Method of asking questions on a step-by-step basis to discover the initial caus of a fault
Process of determining the importance, size, or value of something
Action of awareness, understanding, and sensitvity of the thoughts, emotions, and experience of another without personally having gone through the same thing
Aspect of a relationship characterized by similarity, agreement, or congruity
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