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Bio 190 Ch 5-8 Review
Terms in this set (84)
Fiber of the extracellular matrix
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that
the fresh water is hypotonic and the salt solution is hypertonic to the cells of the celery stalks.
Which of the following statements about osmosis is correct?
The presence of aquaporins (proteins that form water channels in the membrane) should speed up the process of osmosis.
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.
Which of the following is characterized by a cell releasing a signal molecule into the environment, followed by a number of cells in the immediate vicinity responding?
A drug designed to inhibit the response of cells to testosterone would almost certainly result in which of the following?
D. a decrease in transcriptional activity of certain genes
Which of the following sequences is correct?
binding of a growth factor to its receptor → phosphorylation cascade → activation of transcription factor → transcription, binding of a signaling molecule to its receptor → G protein activation → adenylyl cyclase activation → cAMP production → protein phosphorylation, diffusion of a signaling molecule across the plasma membrane → binding of the signaling molecule to its receptor → movement of the signaling molecule-receptor complex into the nucleus → transcription
Energy is observed in two basic forms: potential and kinetic. Which of the following correctly matches these forms with a source of energy?
The covalent bonds of a sugar molecule:potential energy
For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?
a RNA nucleotide
Which of the following is NOT a way in which an enzyme can speed up the reaction that it catalyzes?
The active site can provide heat from the environment that raises the energy content of the substrate.
During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed reaction has a G of -20 kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme in the reaction, what will be the G for the new reaction?
Some of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive inhibitors of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these competitive inhibitors. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant viruses?
in or near the active site
When you have a severe fever, what grave consequence may occur if the fever is not controlled?
Change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
What is substance X?
Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis?
It represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.
The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mol and the free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mol. Why are only two molecules of NADH formed during glycolysis when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed?
Most of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose remains in pyruvate, one of the products of glycolysis.
A glucose molecule is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but together these two processes yield only a few molecules of ATP. What happened to most of the energy that the cell obtains from the oxidation of glucose?
It is stored in NADH and FADH2
What fraction of the carbon dioxide exhaled by animals is generated by the reactions of the citric acid cycle, if glucose is the sole energy source?
Starting with citrate, which of the following combinations of products would result from three acetyl CoA molecules entering the citric acid cycle (see the figure)?
3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2
Which of the following statements about the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP is correct?
The chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that the electron transport in the inner mitochondrial membrane be coupled to proton transport across the same membrane.
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH by
reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will show that all of the following molecules produced by the algae contain 18O except
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules of PS II, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by _____.
electrons released by splitting water
Reduction of oxygen to form water occurs during
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.
What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
Select the correct statement about the Calvin cycle.
The Calvin cycle has three phases: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.
C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because _____.
they can fix carbon at the lower CO2 concentrations that develop when the stomata are closed
In mitochondria, the electron transport chain translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, the electron transport chain translocates protons from
The stroma to the thylakoid space
Which of the following statements is true concerning the figure?
It represents cell processes involved in C4 photosynthesis.
a receptor protein that binds with a signaling molecule and relays the message into the cell by activating other molecules inside the cell
Phospholipids form the main fabric of the plasma membrane. One feature of phospholipids is that when they are placed in an aqueous solution, they will self-assemble into a double layer (bilayer) that resembles the bilayer of the plasma membrane. This self-assembly occurs because phospholipids are hydrophilic at one end (the phospholipid head) and hydrophobic at the other end (the phospholipid tails).
Hydrophobic, can cross easily through lipid bilayer, no transport protein required
Hydrophilic, have difficulty crossing the hydrophobic part, transport protein required to cross efficiently
Hydrophilic, have difficulty crossing the hydrophobic part, transport protein required to cross efficiently
What name is given to the process by which water crosses a selectively permeable membrane?
A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.
A signal molecule is also known as a(n) _____.
Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling?
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules?
Enzymes work by
reducing energy of activation (Ea)
An enzyme _____.
is an organic catalyst
What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____.
Energy of activation
An enzyme is denatured when it loses its native conformation and its biological activity.
A (n)competitive inhibitor has a structure that is so similar to the substrate that it can bond to the enzyme just like the substrate.
A (n)noncompetitive inhibitor binds to a site on the enzyme that is not the active site.
Usually, a(n) irreversible inhibitor forms a covalent bond with an amino acid side group within the active site, which prevents the substrate from entering the active site or prevents catalytic activity.
When the noncompetitive inhibitor is bonded to the enzyme, the shape of the enzyme is distorted.
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
Use your knowledge of the first three stages of cellular respiration to determine which explanation is correct.
It is easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with three or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.
fermentation in human muscle
fermentation in yeast and bacteria
In the light reactions, light energy is used to oxidize
H2O to O2
The electrons derived from this oxidation reaction in the light reactions are used to reduce
NADP+ to NADPH
The Calvin cycle oxidizes the light-reactions product
NADPH to NADP+
The electrons derived from this oxidation reaction in the Calvin cycle are used to reduce
CO2 to G3P
Which of these phosphorylates ADP to make ATP?
_____ splits water into 1/2 O2, H+, and e- .
_____ releases energy that is used to pump hydrogen ions from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment
Energized electrons from ____ enter an electron transport chain and are then used to reduce NADP+.
Chlorophyll can be found in _____.
A & C
Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.
After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduced by _____.
How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
In C3 plants the conservation of water promotes _____.
In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide is fixed in the _____ of mesophyll cells.
C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.
transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs
which of the following are true?
Chlorophyll pigments are integral parts of photosystem I and II.
Chlorophyll is reduced in photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll is oxidized in photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll is found in the thylakoid membranes.
During light reactions of photosynthesis...
the proton concentration of the thylakoid space increases
the stroma's proton concentration decreases
the pH of the stroma increases
Both Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Use chemiosmosis to produce ATP, use a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to produce ATP
As the electrons flow along the electron transport chain during cellular respiration, which of the following changes occurs?
The pH of the intermembrane space decreases.
The electrons lose free energy.
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