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Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1, 3, and 5
terms and principle concepts
Terms in this set (121)
the study of the structure/form of body parts and their relationships to one another.
the of the function of the body's structural machinery usually on the cellular and molecular level.
Principle fo Complementarity
Function always reflects structure, and what a structure can do depends on its specific form.
the smallest particles with unique chemical identities
makes up organelles and other cellular components
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual function.
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions.
the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life.
consists of similar types of cells that form discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function.
made up of different types of tissues, may or may not reside in a cavity.
consists of different organs that work closely together.
made up of the organ systems, a complete individual.
Order of Organization of Life
1. Chemical Level
2. Cellular Level
3. Tissue Level
4. Organ Level
5. System Level
6. Organismal Level
Principle organs: skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands.
Principle Functions: Protection, water retention, thermoregulation, vitamin d synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication, support, movement.
Principle organs: bones, cartilages, ligaments.
Principal functions: support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, electrolyte and acid base balance.
Principle organs: Skeletal muscles.
Principle functions: movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat protection, support.
Principle organs: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils.
Principle functions: recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense against disease, fluid transportation.
Principle organs: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
Principle functions: absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base balance, speech, input and output.
Principle organs: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.
Principal functions: elimination of wastes; regulation of blood volume and pressure; stimulation of red blood cell formation; control of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; detoxification.
Principle organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia.
Principle functions: rapid internal communication and integration, coordination, motor control and sensation.
Principal organs: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries.
Principle functions: hormone production; internal chemical communication and coordination.
Organ Systems Interraltionships
-The body is compartmentalized.
-The integumentary system protects the body from the harsh, external environment.
-The digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen.
- nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood.
- Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems.
the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions in an every-changing outside world.
Homeostatic control Mechanisms
Sensor/receptor - senses and responds to changes (stimuli).
Control (integrating) center - processes the sensory information, 'makes a decision', and directs the response.
Effector - carries out commands of control center (final corrective action to restore homeostasis).
in negative feedback systems, the output turns off the original stimulus.
the body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it.
(i.e. thermostat and regulating room temperature).
Majority of homeostatic mechanisms in the body occur by negative feedback.
(i.e. blood pressure regulation).
*Negative feedback: the effect turns itself off, reverses the stimulus.
In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus.
(i.e. regulation of blood clotting, childbirth, fevers).
a key focus for homeostasis.
the volume and composition of the various fluids within our bodies are carefully regulated.
Our body fluids include:
Intracellular fluid, Extracellular fluid, Interstitial fluid, Plasma, Lymph, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), Synovial Fluid.
The fluid inside our cells
all body fluids other than the ones inside our cells. Can be subdivided according to location.
the fluid between cells in tissues.
the fluid component of blood
The fluid in our lumphatic vessels.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
the fluid within the CNS.
the fluid within most joints.
Frame of reference for terminology and dissections. The person stands erect, feet flat on floor, arms at sides, palms, face and eyes facing forward.
were a regions is located relative to another.
toward the head, or above.
away from the head, or below.
toward the front of the body
toward the back of the body
Toward the midline.
away from the midline
between a more medial and lateral structure.
Closer to the origin of the body part/appendage. Near the torso.
Farther from the origin of the body part/appendage. Far from the torso.
on the body surface
underneath the body's surface.
section implies actual cut of slice to reveal internal anatomy. Plane implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body.
plane divides the body into right and left regions.
plane divides body or organ into equal halves.
plane divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
plane divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
cuts made diagonally.
closed to outside and contain internal organs.
protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions:
cranial cavity- within the skull: encases the brain.
vertebral cavity- runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord.
houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions.
lined with meninges
contains the spinal cord
lined with meninges
has three main components: Mediastinum, Pericardium, and Pleura.
located in the thoracic cavity.
it is the region between the lungs; includes heart, major blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, and thymus.
located in the thoracic cavity.
it is around your heart.
located in the thoracic cavity.
it is around the lungs.
abdominal cavity contains most digestive organs, kidneys and ureters.
pelvic cavity contains rectum, urinary bladder, urethra and reproductive organs.
Serous membranes of abdomniopelvic cavity:
do not typically contain carbon.
water, salts, and many acids and bases; dissolve and dissociate in water.
Contain carbon, are covalently bonded, and are often large.
Carbon easily bonds with C, H, O, N, S
Carbon compounds form macromolecules.
Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and hence are organic compounds.
Macromolecules: very large orgainc molecules, including:
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids.
molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits (monomers).
an identical or similar subunits
Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CH2O)
Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food
3 types: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides.
Carbohydrates: Disaccharides or double sugars
3 major disccharides:
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Carbohydrates: polysaccharides or polymers of simple sugars
Glycogen- is an important storage form of glucose in our bodies.
Starch (amylose) - is a major polysaccharide in our diet and the main storage form of glucose in plants.
Cellulose - is an important structural molecule in plants, and is also known as dietary fiber when found in food.
quickly mobilized energy source:
all digested carbohydrates converted to glucose.
oxidized to make ATP.
Conjugated carbohydrate - covalently bound to lipid or protein
- glycolipids - external surface of cell membrane
- glycoproteins - external surface of cell membrane
mucus of respiratory and digestive tracts
- proteoglycans (mucopolysaccharides) - gels that hold cells and tissues together
forms gelatinous filler in umbilical cord and eye
tough, rubbery texture of cartilage.
contain C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates.
they are hydrophobic
neutral fats or triglycerides
Neutral Fats (triglycerides)
glycerol + 3 fatty acids
primary function - energy storage, insulation and shock absorption (adipose tissue)
phospholipids - modified triglycerides with one fatty acid replaced by a phosphate group.
comprises the cell membrane.
fatty acid "tails" are hydrophobic
phosphate "head" is hydrophilic
phospholipids ae diglycerides that include a polar head group, and are the structural basis of cell membranes.
flat molecules containing 4 linked carbon rings, and are made from cholesterol
the 'parent' steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized
a polymer of amino acids
central carborn with 3 attachments.
- amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH) and radical group (R group).
20 amino acids used to make the proteins are identical except for the radical (R) group.
- properties of amino acid determined by -R group.
They are the building blocks of protein, containing :
Amino group NH2
Carboxyl groups COOH
A side chain (R group)
any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds
- peptides named for the number of amino acids
dipeptides have 2
tripeptides have 3
oligopeptides have fewer than 10 to 15
ploypeptides have more than 15
proteins have more than 50
joins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next
- formed by dehydration synthesis.
macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds.
- Keratin - tough structural protein.
gives strength to hair, nails, and skin surface.
- collagen - durable protein contained in deeper layers of skin, bones, cartilage, and teeth.
- some hormones and other cell-to-cell signals.
- receptors to which signal molecules bind
ligand - any hormone or molecule that reversibly binds to a protein.
- channels in cell membranes that governs what passes through.
- carrier proteins - transports solute particles to other side of membrane.
- turn nerve and muscle activity on and off.
Recognition and Protection:
- immune recognition
- clotting proteins
- motor proteins - molecules with the ability to change shape repeatedly.
- proteins bind cells together
- immune cells to bind to cancer cell
- keeps tissues from falling apart.
proteins that act as catalysts.
1. The substrate, sucrose, consists of glucose and fructose bonded together.
2. the substrate binds to the enzyme, forming an enzyme-substrate complex.
3. the binding of the substrate and enzyme places stress on the glucose-fructose bond, and the bond breaks.
4. Products and released, and the enzyme is free to bind other substrates.
3 components of nucleotides, the building-blocks:
- nitrogenous base (single or double carbon-nitrogen ring)
- sugar (monosaccharide)
- one or more phosphate group
it is the best known nucleotide.
- adenine (nitrogenous base)
- ribose (sugar)
- phosphate groups (3)
Five nitrogen bases contribute to nucleotide structure - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U).
- Two major classes - DNA and RNA
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
- Source of immdeiately usable energy for the cell.
- Adenine - containing RNA nucleotide with three phosphate groups.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
- Double-stranded helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cell.
- Replicates itself before the cell divides, ensuring genetic continuity.
- Provides instructions for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
- Single-stranded molecule found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of a cell.
- Uses the nitrogenous base uracil instead of thymine.
- Three varieties of RNA: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA.
Cellular Form and Function
All organisims are composed of cells and cell products (proteins).
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit life.
Organism's structure, activity, and survival depend on individual and collective activity of cells.
Every cell has 3 principal parts:
1. the plasma membrane is the flexible out surface of the cell.
2. the cytoplasm contains numerous organelles surrounded by cytosol.
3. the nucleus is a large organelle that contains the cells chromosomes.
Major Constituents of Cell
-Plasma (cell) membrane:
made of proteins and lipids
compositions and function can vary from one region of the cell to another.
cytosol (intracellular fluid - ICF)
- Extracellular Fluid (ECF):
fluid outside of cell
- Boundary: separates intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids.
- Cell communication:
interactions with other cells
controls passage of materials in and out of cell
- Phospolipid bilayer embedded with diverse proteins. (75% of membrane lipids are phospholipids)
- Glycocalyx - is a glycoprotein area abutting the cell that provides highly specific biological markers by which cells recognize one another.
molecules arranged in a bilayer
phosophate heads face water on each side of membrane
directed toward the center, avoiding water. drift laterally from place to place, movement keeps membrane fluid
Double bilayer of lipids with imbedded dispersed proteins, all of which are mobile.
Bilayer consists of:
Phosopholipids: have hydrophobic and hydrophilic bipoles, 75%
Glycolipids: phospholipids with short carbohydrate chains on extracellular face; contributes to glycocalyx - carbohydrate coating on the cells surface; 5%
Cholesterol: holds phospholipids still and can stiffen membrane, 20%.
The bilayer is selectively permeable.
2% of the molecules in plasma membrane
50% of its weight.
- Transmembrane (integral) proteins:
pass through membrane
have hydrophilic regions in contract with cytoplasm and extracellular fluid.
have hydrophobic regions that pass back and forth through the lipid of the membrane.
most are glycoproteins.
can drift about freely in phospholipid film.
some anchored to cytoskeleton.
- Peripheral proteins:
adhere to one face of the membrane
usually tethered to the cytoskeleton.
Membrane Protein Functions
receptors, second-messenger systems, enzymes, ion channels, carriers, cell-identity markers, cell-adhesion molecules.
* one of the three types of cell membrane junctions.
Tight Junction: impermeable junction that encircles the cell, prevents substance and bacteria from passing across the cell, found in the GI and urinary tract.
* one of the three types of cell membrane junctions.
Desmosome: anchoring junction attached along the sides of cells, binds the cells together and resists mechanical stress, found in uterus, heart, and epidermis.
* one of the three types of cell membrane junctions.
Gap Junction: communicating junction that allows chemical substances to pass between, found in embryos, cardiac, and smooth muscle.
Overview of Membrane Transport
- Plasma membrane is selectively permeable: allows some things through, and prevents other things from entering and leaving the cell.
- Passive transport: no ATP, spontaneous.
Diffusion: movement of particles down their concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached.
Osmosis: movement of water.
Filtration: movement of particles through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure.
- Active transport: requires ATP:
Transports particles against/up their concentration gradient.
Usually require a carrier or channel.
movement of particles down their concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached.
nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances can diffuse either.
directly through the lipid bilayer, or through channel proteins.
Passive Membrane Transport: Diffusion
transport of glucose, amino acids, and ions.
transported substances bind carrier proteins or pass through protein channels.
Carrier proteins: integral transmembrane proteins, show specificity for certain polar molecules including sugars and amino acids.
is by a carrier
by a channel
like diffusion, but with water.
Water moves in response to differences in solute concentrations, and water always moves toward the higher solute level.
-- Flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other.
From side with higher water concentration to the side with lower water concentration.
Reversible attraction of water to solute particles forms hydration spheres.
Makes those water molecules less available to diffuse back to the side from which they came.
channel proteins specialized for passage of water, yet water can move through the membrane too.
how a solution affects cell volume and pressure
concentrations in cell and ICF are the same.
causes no changes in cell volume or cell shape.
has a higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes.
low water concentration.
cells lose water + shrivel (crenate)
has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than intracellular fluid (ICF)
high water concentration
cells absorb water, swell and may burst (lyse)
Passive Membrane Transport
Filtration: the passage of water and solutes through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure.
Hydrostatic pressure gradient pushes solute-containing fluid from a higher-pressure area to a lower-pressure area.
Active Transport: carrier-mediated transport of solute through a membrane up (against) its concentration gradient.
ATP - energy consumed to change carrier.
sodium-potassium pump keeps K+ concentration higher inside the cell.
bring amino acids into cell
pump Ca2+ out of cell).
Primary Active Transport
Uses ATP solutes are transported across plasma membranes with the use of energy, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.
Functions of Na+/K+ pump
Regulation of cell volume:
"fixed anions" attract cations causing osmosis.
cells swelling stimulates the Na+-K+ pump to lower ion concentration, lower osmolarity and cell swelling.
Secondary Active Transport:
steep concentration gradient maintained between one side of the membrane and the other - (water behind a dam)
sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT) - simultaneously binds Na+ and glucose and carries both into the cell.
does not consume ATP
thyroid hormone increase # of Na+ - K+ pumps
consume ATP and produce heat as a by-product.
Maintenance of a membrane potential in all cells:
pump keeps inside more negative, outside more positive
necessary for nerve and muscle function.
Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes in vesicles - bubblelike enclosures of membrane.
-Exocytosis - moves substance from the cell interior to extracellular space.
-Transcytosis - moving substances into, across, and then out of a cell (small intestine epithelium).
-Endocytosis - enables large particles and macromolecules to enter the cell.
-Phagocytosis - pseudopods engulf solids and bring them into the cell's interior.
-Receptor-mediated endocytosis: particles bind to specific receptors on plasma membrane.
replacement of plasma membrane removed by endocytosis.
Keeps tissues free of debris and infectious microorganisms.
The Cell Interior
structures in the cytoplasm:
organelles, cytoskeleton, and inclusions.
all embedded in a clear gelatinous cytosol.
- Organelles - internal structures of a cell that carry out specialized metabolic tasks.
membranous organelles - those surrounded by one or two layers of unit membrane.
nucleus, mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex.
organelles not surrounded by membranes; ribosome, centrosome, centriole, basal bodies.
Cytoskeleton: collection of protein filaments.
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
Inclusions: stored cellular components and fat droplets.
Cell Parts: Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm - material between plasma membrane and the nucleus.
cytoplasmic organelles - metabolic machinery of the cell.
cytosol - largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes.
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