23 terms

Chapter 20 Post War Years at Home

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Post-war America
1) GI Bill
congress passed Servicemen's Readjustment Act in 1944
~pays part of their tuition, year's worth of unemployment benefits while looking 4 new job, low interest, federal loans for homes
Post-war America
2) Suburbs
~many returning vets faced housing crisis
~William Levitt & Henry Kaiser came up w/ solution 2 mass produce houses
~houses were in small residential communities outside the cities (called suburbs)
~Levittown in NY on Long Island was 1st one
~many vets and their fams moved into these homes
Post-war America
3) Automobile
~no more rationing of gas, more Am buy cars
~living in suburb made cars necessary
~more cars= more roads
~Interstate Highway Act of 1956: authorize national highway network. 41,000 miles of highways
~RR decline and more Am. hit roads 2 travel
~Disneyland open in Cali July 1955, 3 mil. ppl visit next yr
~Car industry boosts other industry (restaurant, drive-in, motel, mall)
~more noise, pollution, accident, stress level went up, roads damaged
~many jobs followed middle and upper classes 2 suburbs, leaving poor in cities = gap b/w poor and middle class widened
The Business World
1) Conglomerates
~they diversified to protect themselves against declines in individual sectors of the economy
The Business World
2) Franchises
~company that offers similar services or products in many location
~the right sold 2 a person to do business using the parent company's name and system
~fast food #1 to do this
~these new organizations created "company people": ppl who would fit in, be part of tea, cooperate and stay loyal
~create conformity and "belongingness"
~conformity replaced individuality (now you work your way up)
The Business World
3) Consumerism
~middle class had $ and wanted 2 buy (parents:rationed)
~many new products
~show wealth w/ # of goods
~new products kept up w/ demand 4 consumer goods
~recreational items became big items
~casual clothing more popular
~Planned Obsolescence: new marketing strategy where manufacturers planned 4 foods 2 go obsolete or to wear out/be outdated
~Am. now wanted new and better things than last yr and started 2 become a "throwaway society"
~consumers start using credit 2 buy goods: buy now, pay later
~1st credit card: Diner's Club in 1950
~installment plans let ppl buy more bigger and expensive items
~personal debt grew (1950- back 2 recession; 3 small one)
~ppl spend money, not save
~ads encourage ppl 2 buy more and ads appear everywhere
~ads make ppl buy things they don't need; use psychology 2 sell goods
~associate products w/ status & belonging
~TV is more powerful
~1st commercial: 1941
~TV: now a symbol of popular culture
Popular Culture
1) Mass Media
~TV: main form 2 reach ppl; widely available in 1948
~Federal Communications Commission (FCC): gov. agency that regulate TV and other communications industries
~"golden age" of TV: rapid expansion of TV ent.
~comedies were big in 19502 (i love lucy)
~TV guide introduced in 1953
~1954: TV dinners became available
~Critics didn't like its effect on children; said it was too stereotypical
~not enough women, AA, or latinos; portrayed ideal version of life
~radio turn 2 news progamming and music
~movie attendance decrease
~movie took advantage of what TV didn't have to bring ppl in color, size and sound
Jonas Salk
American doctor who invented the polio vaccine in 1953. Polio crippled and killed millions worldwide, and the successful vaccine virtually eliminated the scourge.
Feminist movement
Betty Friedan wrote the Feminine Mystique, women demanding equal rights in work
Taft-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
Modern Republicanism
President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.
Checker's Speech
A speech made by vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon in 1952 after he had been accused of improprieties regarding a fund established for him to reimburse him for his political expenses. In it, he said that he defended himself and said regardless of what everyone else thought, he would keep a dog that his kids had named checkers. It led to an outpouring of support for Nixon and it secured his place on the republican ticket for the 1952 election.
Rock n Roll
"Crossover" musical style that rose to dominance in the 1950s, merging black rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country. Featuring a heavy beat and driving rhythm, rock 'n' roll music became a defining feature of the 1950s youth culture. (947)
Benjamin Spock
Pediatrician in the 1940s whose book "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care" influenced the upbringing of children around the world.
Addition to the Pledge of Allegiance
Under GOD is added by act of Congress in response to the atheists Communist countries
Feminine Mystique
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
Truman's Fair Deal
Proposals for a nationwide system compulsatory health insurance and he supported civil rights
Election of 1948
The U.S. presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for the Democratic Party in a presidential election. Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party, a status they would retain until the 1980's.
Election of 1952
Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) with Nixon as his VP (California business scandal) verses Adlai Stevenson (D) (Truman chose not to run again because he was unpopular because of the Korean war)...IKE wins with slogan "I LIKE IKE"
reconversion
the social and economic transition from wartime to peacetime
beatnik
A United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
22 amendment
limits the president to 2 terms or 10 years
Baby Boom
A cohort of individuals born in the Unite States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War 2 in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.