Neurasthenia- • Men likely to get neurasthenia
• Symptoms: fatigue, depression insomnia, can't sleep, headaches, all over body aches/pains, blurry vision
• Profile and status
• Premise: medicine is socially constructed, and social assumptions about gender affect medicine
happened too early to middle aged men in all professions especially business, law, minister... happened especially with failure of business.
Doctors/scientist thought that it was caused by the new fast forwarded nature of society. Their minds have evolved but their body cannot keep up.
Medicine is socially constructed, and social assumptions about gender affect medicine.
Contrast female hysteria- was such a thing as a female neurasthenia. Females exhibited the same symptoms→ crying, cramps, problems with menstruation, debilitating periods- but were treated as if woman were feeble, weak and not seen as men being the highlight of society because they worked so hard that they got involved and did their duty.• Rest cure
• Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Jane Addams—exceptions who recovered
• More common—life in bed, "hopeless invalidism," and even suicide
• "the way this type of woman was expected to live predisposed her to sickness, and sickness in turn predisposed her to continue to live as she was expected to."
o Set standards of femininity
o Fetishized passivity
o Sickness as beauty- vinegar, corsets, paleness, clothing, TB as fragile violet, fainting couches
o Recovery rate- not so good
(1813-1887) Brother to Harriet Beecher Stowe (Uncle Tom's Cabin), Catharine Beecher (American Woman's Home), Isabella Beecher Hooker (woman's rights activist), Charles Beecher (abolitionist). His father: Lyman Beecher "last great Puritan preacher in America"
• Arguably, in his day, most famous of all 12 of his brothers and sister-was accused of having and affair with Elizabeth Tilton, a wife of a business assoc., family split up, never convicted for their racy letters or affair because their love was 'godly' or friendly
• Becomes head of Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, NY (19th century version of a mega-church)
• A performer: mock slaves sales, actual chains of John Brown, defending appropriate "amusements," etc, (had a big, dynamic speaking voice on lecture circuit
• Unlike his father's doctrine of self-sacrifice (wrath) and duty, Beecher's is "Gospel of Love" (pleasure).
• Beecher's perspective on the process of becoming a man....Lectures to Young Men, on Various Important Subjects (1846)"With his father's blessing and his mother's tears, the young man departs from home. He has received his patrimony and embarks for life and independence."(1813-1887): head of Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, NY. He's unlike his father, who preached Calvinism and doctrine of self-sacrifice (wrath) and duty. Beecher preached "Gospel of Love" (pleasure), and believed everyone's sins could be forgiven. He was an advocate of women's suffrage and `Darwinism, and against slavery (did mock slave trials to demonstrate). He was effective because he based his lectures on things he experienced himself, however, he never mentions anything about relations between young men and women in his lectures, which bites him in the ass later. Beecher-Tilton Affair... tried on charges that he had committed adultery with a friend's wife; it destroyed the reputation of Elizabeth Tilton's husband
Davy Crockett (1786-1836) is the great "What if I never left my youth?" Folk hero famous for his wild exploits; never conformed to the normal social roll of youth, going to school and getting a job; he ran away from home and spent his days hunting in the wild. He does not follow the social pattern of becoming a man that was common in the 18th century. He had a wild boyhood with no significant father figure, no education or apprenticeship/job, and no procreation known; uncivilized, chaotic, yet powerful idea. He did not follow wild boyhood---> youth ----> manhood. It was wild boyhood throughout his life. Davy Crocket Almanacs were records of "his life" and adventures produced controversy because of his wild, "animalistic", boyhood. Americans debated over the dangers of youth. However, the Almanacs became surfaced and became famous after his death (1830s-1850s). Almanacs became well-known at the time of commercialization of America where it was becoming more loose socially; the economy was splitting fathers and sons, and commercial industry encouraged the self-made man rather than communal affairs. Documents probably surfaced because of this changing trend in America, not the other way around. Mid 19th century; As a social sphere, it was separate from the domestic sphere of women, girls, and small children, and from the public world of men and commerce. In this space of their own, boys were able to play outside of the rules of the home and the marketplace. A very liberating experience. Boys no longer had to wear the loose fitting gowns that their sisters wore. Consisted of many war games, hunting, rivalries, bonds, clubs, and gang fights. Countered the gentle world of women and domesticity with energy, self-assertion, competition, noise, and violence
Significance: It gave a youngster his first exhilarating taste of independence and made a lasting imprint on his character; many boys at this time took particular interest in imitating their fathers. Boys were put in a situation where they had to accept or reject a feminine identity in their earliest years. Important in a time where autonomy and competition had become male virtues
Middle-class men in the middle of life who overwork were likely to get neurasthenia. Usually a more "feminine" job in the arts b/c they with through a crisis being ridiculed for having a "woman" job; sometimes men forced into another job they don't want, and it caused stress. Also caused by failure at work. Symptoms were blurred vision, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, the list goes on. Relaxation, exercise, and "vacation" from work was the treatment. The idea of Darwinism also comes in; men that cannot keep up with faster paced society will not thrive. Women who experienced the same symptoms supposedly suffered from "Hysteria." Women with hysteria probably felt over-stressed from household duties and men always being away from work. Their treatment was to be confined and isolated; no moving, reading, talking, nothing. A trend even started, and sickness turned into a beauty standard: vinegar, corsets, paleness. Medicine during that time was socially constructed, so social assumptions with gender affected diagnosis. Thus, men suffered from neurasthenia from being overworked, and women suffered from hysteria and were considered weak. (21 April 1838 - 24 December 1914)- a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. In his later life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests. He petitioned the U.S. Congress for the National Park Bill that was passed in 1899, establishing both Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks. Because of the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings, he was able to inspire readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large nature areas. (1890) After graduation he worked for the Department of Interior in Washington, D.C. Albright became a legal assistant to Stephen Mather when Mather became Assistant Secretary in charge of National Parks, and later assisted Mather when the National Park Service (NPS) was established in 1916. As legal assistant he helped acquire land for several new national parks in the east. When Mather became ill, Albright managed the NPS as acting director. He later served as superintendent of Yellowstone National Park and, for a short time, Yosemite National Park. On January 12, 1929 Albright succeeded Mather as the second director of the NPS and held the post until August 9, 1933. The nation's highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, was awarded to Mr. Albright by President Jimmy Carter on the 64th Anniversary of the National Park Service. President Carter announced the award in August of 1980, and the medal was presented on December 8 by Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Robert L. Herbst, in a ceremony at Van Nuys, California. Albright died in Van Nuys, California in 1987.