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51 terms

Biology 1151: Lab Exam 1 - Dr. Ludden; College of Dupage

Biology 1151 Dr. J. Ludden; College of Dupage; Lab Exam one; Kim Kwas
Sex cell
Sexual reproduction:
Merging of sperm and egg
Versions of genes
Haploid cell:
A cell that only has one copy of a chromosome
Diploid cell:
A cell with two copies of a chromosome
Homologous Chromosomes:
Two different copies of the same chromosome, which came from two different parents
Sister Chromatids:
Are two identical copies of a chromosome, connected by a centromere
The process of forming tetrads; replicated homologs pair up and become physically connected
A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids
Euglena cell:
Has a flagellum, which is a long string off the end
Volvox cell:
Round cell w/small round circles around a few larger circles
Paramecium cell:
Similar shape as euglena, but no flagellum
The full complement of genetic material within an organism
Threadlike linear strands of DNA that carries genes
The process of cell division, where the nucleus divides
The division of the cytoplasm of a cell
Three stages of Interphase:
G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase
Clevage furrow:
The protein ring that divides a cell
Genes that have two copies of the same alleles
Genes that have two different alleles, one from each parent
Biological catalysts that reduce activation energy in chemical reactions
A molecule on which an enzyme acts
Conformational Changes:
When a protein shifts between severla similar structures in performing its biological function
Denatured Enzymes:
Molecules whose chemical structure has been altered (by chemical or physical means) and its original properties are lost or diminished
DNA Expression:
The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
The process of converting DNA into a single strand of RNA
The process in which nucleotides are read, designating which amino acid is needed
A lens (on a mircoscope) that serves to concentrate light
Four structures found only in animal cells:
Centrosomes, centrioles, lysosomes and flagellum
Five structures found on in plant cells:
Chloroplasts, granum, central vacuole, tontoplast and cell wall
Surface to volume ratio:
Discontinus axis:
Two lens:
One flips, one inverts
Y Axis:
Is the dependent variable
X Axis:
Is the independent variable
Light intensity:
Decreases w/higher power
Messenger RNA base triplets
S phase:
The cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs
The location where the RNA molecule is formed (in eukaryotic cells)
The location where the RNa molecule is formed (in procaryotic cells)
The enzyme that begins the trasncription process
The binding site of polymerase, on the DNA molecule
Is where translation takes place
The part of the tRNA molecule that determines where the tRNA attaches to the mRNA
Four steps of building a polypeptide:
transcribe mRNA; mRNA associates w/ribosome; tRNA carry amino acids to mRNA; Amino acids form protein chain
Nuclear pores:
Are the openings in the nuclear envelope that regulate what substances can pass through it
The process of depositing a vesicle's contents outside the cell
Is found in the nucleus
Golgi Apparatus:
Plays an important role in the modification/transportation of newly formed proteins
Is where cellular respiration takes place
To synthesize proteins:
The primary function of the ribosomes is...