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Biology 1151 Dr. J. Ludden; College of Dupage; Lab Exam one; Kim Kwas


Sex cell

Sexual reproduction:

Merging of sperm and egg


Versions of genes

Haploid cell:

A cell that only has one copy of a chromosome

Diploid cell:

A cell with two copies of a chromosome

Homologous Chromosomes:

Two different copies of the same chromosome, which came from two different parents

Sister Chromatids:

Are two identical copies of a chromosome, connected by a centromere


The process of forming tetrads; replicated homologs pair up and become physically connected


A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids

Euglena cell:

Has a flagellum, which is a long string off the end

Volvox cell:

Round cell w/small round circles around a few larger circles

Paramecium cell:

Similar shape as euglena, but no flagellum


The full complement of genetic material within an organism


Threadlike linear strands of DNA that carries genes


The process of cell division, where the nucleus divides


The division of the cytoplasm of a cell

Three stages of Interphase:

G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase

Clevage furrow:

The protein ring that divides a cell


Genes that have two copies of the same alleles


Genes that have two different alleles, one from each parent


Biological catalysts that reduce activation energy in chemical reactions


A molecule on which an enzyme acts

Conformational Changes:

When a protein shifts between severla similar structures in performing its biological function

Denatured Enzymes:

Molecules whose chemical structure has been altered (by chemical or physical means) and its original properties are lost or diminished

DNA Expression:

The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins


The process of converting DNA into a single strand of RNA


The process in which nucleotides are read, designating which amino acid is needed


A lens (on a mircoscope) that serves to concentrate light

Four structures found only in animal cells:

Centrosomes, centrioles, lysosomes and flagellum

Five structures found on in plant cells:

Chloroplasts, granum, central vacuole, tontoplast and cell wall

Surface to volume ratio:


Discontinus axis:


Two lens:

One flips, one inverts

Y Axis:

Is the dependent variable

X Axis:

Is the independent variable

Light intensity:

Decreases w/higher power


Messenger RNA base triplets

S phase:

The cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs


The location where the RNA molecule is formed (in eukaryotic cells)


The location where the RNa molecule is formed (in procaryotic cells)


The enzyme that begins the trasncription process


The binding site of polymerase, on the DNA molecule


Is where translation takes place


The part of the tRNA molecule that determines where the tRNA attaches to the mRNA

Four steps of building a polypeptide:

transcribe mRNA; mRNA associates w/ribosome; tRNA carry amino acids to mRNA; Amino acids form protein chain

Nuclear pores:

Are the openings in the nuclear envelope that regulate what substances can pass through it


The process of depositing a vesicle's contents outside the cell


Is found in the nucleus

Golgi Apparatus:

Plays an important role in the modification/transportation of newly formed proteins


Is where cellular respiration takes place

To synthesize proteins:

The primary function of the ribosomes is...

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