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51 terms

Biology 1151: Lab Exam 1 - Dr. Ludden; College of Dupage

Biology 1151 Dr. J. Ludden; College of Dupage; Lab Exam one; Kim Kwas
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Gamete;
Sex cell
Sexual reproduction:
Merging of sperm and egg
Alleles:
Versions of genes
Haploid cell:
A cell that only has one copy of a chromosome
Diploid cell:
A cell with two copies of a chromosome
Homologous Chromosomes:
Two different copies of the same chromosome, which came from two different parents
Sister Chromatids:
Are two identical copies of a chromosome, connected by a centromere
Synapsis:
The process of forming tetrads; replicated homologs pair up and become physically connected
Tetrads:
A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids
Euglena cell:
Has a flagellum, which is a long string off the end
Volvox cell:
Round cell w/small round circles around a few larger circles
Paramecium cell:
Similar shape as euglena, but no flagellum
Genome:
The full complement of genetic material within an organism
Chromosomes:
Threadlike linear strands of DNA that carries genes
Mitosis:
The process of cell division, where the nucleus divides
Cytokinesis:
The division of the cytoplasm of a cell
Three stages of Interphase:
G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase
Clevage furrow:
The protein ring that divides a cell
Homozygous:
Genes that have two copies of the same alleles
Heterozygous:
Genes that have two different alleles, one from each parent
Enzymes:
Biological catalysts that reduce activation energy in chemical reactions
Substrate:
A molecule on which an enzyme acts
Conformational Changes:
When a protein shifts between severla similar structures in performing its biological function
Denatured Enzymes:
Molecules whose chemical structure has been altered (by chemical or physical means) and its original properties are lost or diminished
DNA Expression:
The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
Transcription:
The process of converting DNA into a single strand of RNA
Translation:
The process in which nucleotides are read, designating which amino acid is needed
Condenser:
A lens (on a mircoscope) that serves to concentrate light
Four structures found only in animal cells:
Centrosomes, centrioles, lysosomes and flagellum
Five structures found on in plant cells:
Chloroplasts, granum, central vacuole, tontoplast and cell wall
Surface to volume ratio:
2:3
Discontinus axis:
//
Two lens:
One flips, one inverts
Y Axis:
Is the dependent variable
X Axis:
Is the independent variable
Light intensity:
Decreases w/higher power
Codons:
Messenger RNA base triplets
S phase:
The cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs
Nucleus:
The location where the RNA molecule is formed (in eukaryotic cells)
Cytoplasm:
The location where the RNa molecule is formed (in procaryotic cells)
Polymerase:
The enzyme that begins the trasncription process
Promoter:
The binding site of polymerase, on the DNA molecule
Ribosomes:
Is where translation takes place
Anticodon:
The part of the tRNA molecule that determines where the tRNA attaches to the mRNA
Four steps of building a polypeptide:
transcribe mRNA; mRNA associates w/ribosome; tRNA carry amino acids to mRNA; Amino acids form protein chain
Nuclear pores:
Are the openings in the nuclear envelope that regulate what substances can pass through it
Exocytosis:
The process of depositing a vesicle's contents outside the cell
Chromatin:
Is found in the nucleus
Golgi Apparatus:
Plays an important role in the modification/transportation of newly formed proteins
Mitochondrion:
Is where cellular respiration takes place
To synthesize proteins:
The primary function of the ribosomes is...