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endocrine action

hormone goes to distant target organs via bloodstream

paracrine action

hormone acts locally and diffuses into neighboring cells

autocrine action

hormone acts on same cell that produced it


bind to the receptor to block the hormone

a day in the life of a peptide hormone

synthesized in ER, transferred to Golgi, packaged in secretory vesicles... secretion!


premature form of protein hormone that is proteolytically clipped to generate mature form

larger precursor

sequence is proteolytically cleaved into hormone

regulated secretion

hormone stored in cell and released in "bursts" when stimulated; allows large amount to be secreted in short time period

constitutive secretion

hormones secreted as they are synthesized (less common than regulated secretion)

how many amino acids does insulin have???

51... duh

half-life of circulating peptide hormones

a few minutes :'(

binding proteins

some (a few) peptide hormones circulate bound to other proteins (ex. IGF-1)



1st and rate-limiting step of steroid synthesis

cholesterol -----> pregnenolone (formed in the inner membrane of peanut, shuttled back and forth between mitochondria and ER for enzyme stuff)

life after secretion (steroids)

btw, rapidly secreted with little storage; bind to plasma proteins usu. low affinity and nonspecific; specific binding proteins affect halflife and rate of elimination

elimination of steroid hormones

inactivating metabolic transformations OR excreted in bile or urine

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