Terms in this set (12)

1. P- feminist perspectives can counter androcentrism.
E- feminist psychology agrees there are biological differences between men and women but that a social constructionist approach needs to be taken in order to remove the imbalances in theory and research that social processes (and stereotypes) have resulted in.
E- Eagly found women to be less effective leaders and this meant that support, i.e training programmes, could be put in place, to enable change to be made.
L- This view implies that social processes must be examined and changed in order to change beliefs about gender.

2. P- Some methods in psychology may be biases towards one gender.
E- The gender of the researcher can result in gender bias.
E- Rosethal found that male experimenters were more encouraging towards female participants, causing male participants to m=not perform as well.
L- This cause alpha biases to form as the difference between men and women is exaggerated as a result of low validity research.

3. P- Gender bias can be reduced by developing theories which emphasise the value of women.
E- Research by Cornwell found that women are better at learning because they are more attentive and organised.
E- This emphasises the value of women as it focuses on their positive attributes.
L- This matters because research can help to challenge stereotypes and change preconceptions.

4. P- Beta bias can draw attention away from women.
E- Beta bias does promote equal treatment and has lead to women having greater access to a arrange of opportunities.
E- However it draws away from certain important differences, for example in power and also the demands of pregnancy and childbirth.
L- Therefore it is best to avoid beta bias and ensure that notable differences are taken into consideration.
1. P- Ethnocentrism can be countered by developing indigenous psychologies.
E- These are the development of different theories from different cultures.
E- For example, Afrocentrism suggests that all black people have their roots in Africa and therefor theories must be African centered.
L- These kind of psychologies has enabled theories to be developed that consider different cultures.

2. P- However indigenous psychologies sad often only relevant to finding differences in one culture.
E- the Etic approach uses indigenous researchers in different cultural settings for n order to develop understandings of behaviour.
E- buss's study of mate preference used local researchers in 37 different countries.
L- this approach allows universal theories of behaviour to be developed, while avoiding cultural bias.

3. P- psychological research is severely unrepresentative of different cultural groups and this needs to be dealt with.
E- smith and bond surveyed an European textbook on social psychology and found that 66% of the studies were American and 32% were European and 2% from the rest of the world.
L- this implies that psychological research can be improved by selecting samples from different cultural groups.

4. P- Another issue with cultural bias is that stereotypes can arise.
E- For example, the IQ test the US army used before WW1 was cultural biased.
E- this showed African Americans to be at the bottom of the scale
L- and led to profound effects on the attitudes Americans held towards other groups of people, highlighting the issue.