Issues and debates
Terms in this set (12)
This is the distorted view that behaviours are typical/a typical for men and/or women
This occurs when a theory assumes that there are real and enduring differences between males and females, and this often results in devaluing one gender in comparison the other.
For example Freud developed theories that reflected the 19th century society he was living in; men were generally more powerful and educated. Therefore he viewed femininity as failed masculinity as females do not undergo the Oedipus complex and so have underdeveloped superegos, meaning they are inferior. This meant he exaggerated the difference between men and women- an alpha bias.
This refers to theories that focus on men. For example, in Asch's original study of conformity, he only used male participants and so generalised his results; this is an example of beta bias. This can affect psychological research as it provides potentially inaccurate and misleading representations of how females respond in particular situations.
This occurs when a theory ignores or minimises gender differences and so the needs of one gender (usually women) are ignored.
For example the flight or fight stress response was based on research conduction solely with male animals, due to the complexity of female hormone levels. It was assumed the response was universal and what was true for males was also true for females. However Taylor conducted research to show that women undergo a 'tend and befriend' response.
The aim of psychology is to produce theories that have universality and apply to all people
Gender Bias AO3
1. P- feminist perspectives can counter androcentrism.
E- feminist psychology agrees there are biological differences between men and women but that a social constructionist approach needs to be taken in order to remove the imbalances in theory and research that social processes (and stereotypes) have resulted in.
E- Eagly found women to be less effective leaders and this meant that support, i.e training programmes, could be put in place, to enable change to be made.
L- This view implies that social processes must be examined and changed in order to change beliefs about gender.
2. P- Some methods in psychology may be biases towards one gender.
E- The gender of the researcher can result in gender bias.
E- Rosethal found that male experimenters were more encouraging towards female participants, causing male participants to m=not perform as well.
L- This cause alpha biases to form as the difference between men and women is exaggerated as a result of low validity research.
3. P- Gender bias can be reduced by developing theories which emphasise the value of women.
E- Research by Cornwell found that women are better at learning because they are more attentive and organised.
E- This emphasises the value of women as it focuses on their positive attributes.
L- This matters because research can help to challenge stereotypes and change preconceptions.
4. P- Beta bias can draw attention away from women.
E- Beta bias does promote equal treatment and has lead to women having greater access to a arrange of opportunities.
E- However it draws away from certain important differences, for example in power and also the demands of pregnancy and childbirth.
L- Therefore it is best to avoid beta bias and ensure that notable differences are taken into consideration.
This is the tendency to judge people in terms of ones own cultural assumptions.
Alpha bias (culture)
assumes culture groups are profoundly different
Beta bias (culture)
When real cultural differences are ignored or minimised and all people are assumed to be the same resulting in universal research designs and conclusions.
-Seeing the world through ones own cultural perspective and believing this is both normal and correct.
eg. Ainsworths strange situation assumed that the meaning of attachment types are the sae for the infants in different cultures, therefore minimises the differences.
eg. some attachment theories were based on the idea that independence is valued and dependence in undesirable, however in collectivist cultures it is desirable.
-insists that behaviours can only be properly understood if the cultural context is taken into consideration.
eg. defining mental disorders shows as statistical infrequency does not take into account that behaviours may be more common in some cultures than others.
eg. Mead's research into gender in Papa New Guinea led to conclusions that there were major gender differences due to the specific culture, but she then recognised that there were universal behaviours.
Cultural bias AO3
1. P- Ethnocentrism can be countered by developing indigenous psychologies.
E- These are the development of different theories from different cultures.
E- For example, Afrocentrism suggests that all black people have their roots in Africa and therefor theories must be African centered.
L- These kind of psychologies has enabled theories to be developed that consider different cultures.
2. P- However indigenous psychologies sad often only relevant to finding differences in one culture.
E- the Etic approach uses indigenous researchers in different cultural settings for n order to develop understandings of behaviour.
E- buss's study of mate preference used local researchers in 37 different countries.
L- this approach allows universal theories of behaviour to be developed, while avoiding cultural bias.
3. P- psychological research is severely unrepresentative of different cultural groups and this needs to be dealt with.
E- smith and bond surveyed an European textbook on social psychology and found that 66% of the studies were American and 32% were European and 2% from the rest of the world.
L- this implies that psychological research can be improved by selecting samples from different cultural groups.
4. P- Another issue with cultural bias is that stereotypes can arise.
E- For example, the IQ test the US army used before WW1 was cultural biased.
E- this showed African Americans to be at the bottom of the scale
L- and led to profound effects on the attitudes Americans held towards other groups of people, highlighting the issue.