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84 terms

Apologia - Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy and Physiology - Lesson 2

Lesson 2 - Skeletal System
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skeletal system
The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
skull
the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates; consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear
rib cage
bones that protect the heart and lungs
lipids
scientific name for fats
minerals
substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
calcium
A mineral that is essential for bone growth, teeth development, blood coagulation, and many other functions
calcium salts
ground substance; crystalline matrix of bone; very rigid structure ~ gives bone excellent support & protection
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
Vitamin D
a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets; promotes growth and health of bones; works with calcium and phosphorus to build bones and teeth
rickets
disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
malnutrition
condition caused by a diet lacking one or more essential nutrients
phosphorus
mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
joints
places where bones connect: hinge, pivot, gliding, ball and socket
periosteum
membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue; serves as an attachment for tendons and muscles
remodeling
process that ensures bone maintenance through simultaneous bone resorption and formation
compact bone
dense, hard layers of bone tissue beneath the periosteum
collagen
major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone
spongy bone
layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
bone marrow
the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones
red bone marrow
involved in blood cell formation; located in the cavities between the spicules in spongy bone
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
osteo
refers to the bones
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteoclasts
bone-destroying cells
cartilage
tough elastic tissue
joint cartilage
works like a shock absorber; keeps your bones from hurting when they rub against one another
fused
this is what occurs when two smaller bones are joined together to form one bone
callus
bony tissue formed during the healing of a fractured bone
femur
thigh bone; the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton
malleus
first of the three bones of the middle ear; shaped like a hammer
incus
second of the three bones of the middle ear; shaped like anvil
stapes
third of the three bones of the middle ear; shaped like stirrups
long bones
longer than they are wide; Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
short bones
bones that are generally small and cube shaped and contain multiple articulating surfaces; examples are the carpals and tarsals.
flat bones
thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongy bone (skull, ribs, sternum)
sesamoid bones
small, round bones that are embedded in certain tendons; often found in the hands and feet; the largest is the patella
patella
kneecap; largest sesamoid bone in the body
irregular bone
bone that doesn't fit in any other category;
mostly spongy bone with thin compacty outer layer; e.g. vertebrae, facial bones
hyoid
a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles
ligaments
tissue that connects bone to bone
coccyx
the tailbone, made up of the four fused vertebrae at the base of the spinal column
cranium
the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
sutures
immovable joints between skull bones
facial bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
mandible
lower jawbone
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
mucus
a slimy substance produced in the nose and throat to moisten and protect them
vertebrate
animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium
vertebrae
bones of the spinal column
spinal / vertebral column
the group of bones that extends from the base of the skull to the hips and surrounds the spinal cord
cervical vertebrae
the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck; also known as C1 through C7
thoracic vertebrae
the second set of 12 vertebrae; form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1 through T12
lumbar vertebrae
third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
costal cartilage
the cartilages that connect the sternum and the ends of the ribs
true ribs
first 7 pairs of ribs; attach directly to sternum
false ribs
last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum
floating ribs
last two pairs of ribs; do not attach to sternum
pectoral girdle
consists of the clavicle and scapula; functions to attach the upper extremity to the axial skeleton
scapulae
called the shoulder blade; flat, triangular bone
clavicles
collar bones
humerus
upper arm bone
radius
bone of the lower arm (thumb side)
ulna
bone of the lower arm (pinky side)
carpals
bones of the wrist
metacarpals
bones of the hand
digits
fingers and toes
phalanges
finger and toe bones
pelvic girdle
pelvis; anchors the lower limbs
coxae
hip bones
femur
thigh bone; the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton
tibia
shin bone; the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
fibula
calf bone; the outer and thinner of the two bones in the leg between the knee and ankle
tarsals
ankle bones
metatarsals
bones of the foot between ankle and toes
calcaneus
heel bone
synovial fluid
viscid lubricating fluid secreted by the membrane lining joints and tendon sheaths etc.
arthritis
inflammation of a joint or joints
hinge joints
joints that move back and forth like the movement of a door hinge; these joints are located at your fingers, toes, elbows, and knees.
ball-and-socket joints
most movable joint, ball shaped head of one bone fits in another concave depression; shoulder and hip
saddle joints
permit one bone to slide in two directions; only one pair exists and it is between the thumb and wrist
sliding joints
allow bones in the hand to glide over one another, giving flexibility
pivot joints
Rotate around each other like in the neck
ellipsoidal joints
attach fingers and toes to hands and feet; the joints that connect your phalanges to your metacarpals; like flattened ball-and-socket joints