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Chapter 36 Assisting In Orthopedic Medicine
Terms in this set (106)
inflammation of a joint.
pertaining to a joint.
fluid-filled, saclike membranes that provide cushioning and allow frictionless motion between two tissues.
a rubbery, smooth, somewhat elastic connective tissue that covers the ends of bones.
pertaining to the neck region containing seven cervical vertebrae.
anti-inflammatory hormones, natural or synthetic.
a dry, cracking sound or sensation.
the mid portion of a long bone; it contains the medullary cavity.
an illuminated optic instrument for visualization of the inside of the body; it may be inserted through an incision in minimally invasive surgery.
the end of a long bone; it contains the growth (epiphyseal) plates.
an instrument for measuring the degrees of motion in a joint.
a tissue reaction to trauma or disease that includes redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
relating to the normal convex curvature of the thoracic spine.
tough connective tissue bands that hold joints together by attaching to the bones on either side of the joint.
relating to the normal concave curvature of the cervical and lumbar spines.
relating to the lower back region that contains the five lumbar vertebrae.
dislocation of a bone from its normal anatomic location.
an indefinite feeling of debility or lack of health, often indicating or accompanying the onset of an illness.
the inner portion of the diaphysis; it contains the bone marrow.
the thin, highly innervated, membranous covering of a bone.
an artificial replacement for a body part.
Range of Motion (ROM)
the extent of movement possible in a joint; the degree of motion depends on the type of joint and whether a disease process is present.
return to correct anatomic position, as in reduction of a fx.
a malignant tumor in fibrous, fatty, muscular, synovial, vascular, or neural tissue.
an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
a muscle that contains fibers divided by bands of cross stripes or striations because of overlapping myofilaments.
a clear fluid found in joint cavities that facilitates smooth movements and nourishes joint structures.
tough bands of connective tissue that connect muscle to bone.
reduces the angle of the joint and brings the two bones closer together.
moving the body part away from the midline or median plane of the body.
the opposite of flexion; increases the angle or distance between two bones or parts of the body.
the opposite of abduction; moving the body part toward the midline of the body.
extension 180 degrees (e.g., the neck is extended backward or the toes are pointed downward)
moving a bone around its central axis; common in ball-and-socket joints.
circular movement of a limb; a combination of abduction, adduction, extension, and flexion.
turning the sole of the foot laterally, or outward.
moving the instep of the foot up and dorsally, reducing the angle between the foot and the leg.
the opposite of eversion; turning the sole of the foot medially, or inward.
a toe-down movement of the foot at the ankle; increases the angle at the joint.
rotation of the forearm that turns the palm of the hand downward, or posteriorly.
the opposite of pronation; rotation of the forearm that turns the palm of the hand upward, or anteriorly.
the most common cause of heel pain. It is a flat ligament that connects the heel bones of the foot to the toes. Supports the arch of the foot.
Restless leg syndrome
a patient with ________ _______ __________ reports unpleasant sensations, such as tingling, aching, and twitching of the legs, during periods of inactivity, especially at night. The individual feels an overwhelming urge to move leg to relieve these abnormal feelings. TX with Requip, Neupro, Mirapex.
closed or simple
broken bone is contained within intact skin.
open or compound
skin is broken above the fracture; open to the external environment creating the potential for infection.
fracture extends along the length of the bone.
break is caused by direct force applied perpendicular to a bone; fracture runs across the bone.
break is caused by a twisting force with an upward thrust; fracture ends are short and run at an oblique angle across the bone.
break is caused by compression or angulation forces in the long bones of children under age 10; because of its softness, the bone is cracked on one side and intact on the other side.
break is caused by severe, direct force, which creates fracture with multiple fragments.
break is caused by strong forces that drive bone fragments firmly together.
__________ break results from weakening of the bones by disease, as an osteoporosis or sarcoma.
bone ends remain in alignment.
bone ends are moved out of alignment.
break is caused by a twisting or rotary force, which results in long, sharp, pointed bone ends; suspicious as a child abuse injury.
break is caused by forces that drive bones together; typically seen in the vertebrae.
break is caused by forceful contraction of a muscle against resistance, and a bone fragment tears at the site of muscle insertion.
bone fragments of the skull are driven inward.
A technique used in orthopedics that visualizes the joints with an x-ray after the injection of a radiopaque dye.
A technique used in orthopedics that evaluates areas of bone growth, bone tumors, and other bone disease pattern; requires the use of an injected dye or isotope.
DEXA (Dual energy x-ray Absorptiometry)
specialized x-ray that assesses bone density; used to diagnose and manage osteoporosis.
Computed Tomography (CT) scan
visualizes multiple planes of soft tissue such as tumors, lesions, or some spinal injuries; usually used with an injected dye.
a physician who specializes in _____ is responsible for diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially those affecting the bones.
___________ are specialists in treating inflammatory joint disorders.
are doctors but not medical physicians; they use manual adjusting procedures to correct subluxations or misalignments of the spine to allow maximum function, this facilitating the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and prevent disease.
The _____________ system includes all the skeletal muscles, bones, joints, and supportive connective tissues.
more than _____ muscles attach to the human skeleton, that account for approximately half a person's weight, and contribute to body's shape.
Skeletal muscle fibers are __________ and striated.
Body has two other types of muscle: smooth muscle, which lines organs and blood vessel walls and is non striated, and cardiac muscle, a striated muscle in the heart. Both of these types are ______ muscles; that is, the individual cannot control their functions.
The human skeleton is composed of more than ____ bones.
Bones are connected to each other at junctions known as _______.
________ joints, the bones are joined with fibrous cartilage and are immovable (e.g., the sutures of the skull) or only slightly moveable (vertebrae)
_______ joints are freely moveable because the adjacent ends of two bones are covered with cartilage and are enclosed in a joint cavity that contains a viscous, slippery fluid called synovial fluid, which is an excellent lube.
The joints of the skull are known as ______. They permit skull to grow with the child but have very limited flexibility.
A ______ joints, as in the wrist and foot, is made up of two flat surfaced bones that slide over each other, allowing limited movement.
The _______ joints of the elbow and knee allow for movement in one plane, such as bending back and forth.
____-______-_______ joints, as in the shoulder and hip, allow for the greatest ROM by permitting the joint to rotate in a complete circle.
connect bone to bone.
connect muscle to bone.
condition of widespread connective tissue and muscular pain; often includes severe fatigue and chronic pain.
chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease of unknown origin that affects voluntary muscle contraction.
A _____ is a wrenching or twisting of a joint in an abnormal plane of motion, or beyond its normal ROM, that results in stretching and/or tearing of a ligament.
A ______ may be a simple over stretching of a muscle or tendon, or it can be caused by a partial or complete tear of the tissue away from the bone.
Muscle ______ occur spontaneously and may persist for hours.
A ______ is a break or crack in a bone, generally as the result of trauma or disease.
"softening of the bones" a metabolic disease in which inadequate calcium or phosphorus is available for building new bone during growth remodeling.
a disease in which Ca deposits in the bone gradually decline, and bones become increasingly weak and brittle so that even small stressors, such as bending over or coughing, can cause fx.
Bones are constantly changing through a process called ________, or bone turnover. Allows bone to grow.
Mild bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis.
A ______ ______ occurs when the soft nucleus of an intervertebral disk protrudes through a tear or weakened area in its tough outer cartilaginous covering.
an incomplete dislocation of a joint, meaning that the bones are only slightly out of proper alignment and location.
_______ of a joint is also called lunation, a condition in which two bones of a joint are no longer in approximation.
______, which may also be called gouty arthritis, is a metabolic disease involving overproduction or improper elimination of uric acid.
Systemic (lupus erythematosus)
Three main types of lupus.
_______ arthritis usually occurs after some type of systemic or local infection in some other part of the body or after a joint has been exposed to a pathogen by trauma or surgery.
an infection caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii bacteria.
Signs and symptoms of lyme disease may include a "bulls-eye" lesion, called ______ ______, surrounding the area of the tick bite; this lesion can appear within a few days or up to a month after exposure.
_____________, also called a degenerative joint disease (DJD), is marked by significant thinning and degeneration of the articular cartilage of synovial joints.
an autoimmune inflammatory condition that involves an immune system response to the synovial membranes, causing synovitis.
one of the most common causes of pain in the shoulder and elbow.
painful inflammation of a joint bursa that most commonly follows repetitive movement or prolonged pressure on a joint.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
narrow opening in the bones at the base of the hand; this is where the median nerve passes to send nervous stimuli to the hand.
__________ and diagnostic imaging frequently are used to help diagnose orthopedic conditions.
Physical treatment methods called ______ often ar used in orthopedic conditions.
______ is a technique for creating deep tissue heat through the use of a high frequency current, ultrasonic waves, or microwave radiation.
Cold applications, such as ice packs and cold compresses, act as ____________ and also cause contraction of the involuntary muscles of the skin "goose bumps"
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