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128 terms

Medical Terminology-Chp. 10-Nervous System

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acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends (synapses) of some nerve cells.
afferent nerves
carry messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves)
arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
astrocyte
a type of glial (neurologic) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
axon
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
brainstem
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. Pons and medulla oblongata are part of the brainstem.
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
cerebellum
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral cortex
Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of brain
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought & memory.
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves that carry message to and from the brain
dendrite
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
dura meter
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cored (Latin for hard mother)
efferent nerves
carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves
ependymal cell
a glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
glial cell
Cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
gyrus
sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
hypothalamus
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
medulla oblongata
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
meninges
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
microglial cell
Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
motor nerves
Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs
myelin sheath
White fatty tissue that surrounds, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse condition along axons.
nerve
Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
neuron
Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
neurotransmitter
Chemical messenger, released at the end of the nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.
oligodendroglial cell
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
parasympathetic nerves
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
parenchyma
Essential distinguishing tissue of the nervous system, includes the brain and spinal cord. This is to distinguish it from surrounding tissues, such as meninges.
peripheral nervous system
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
pia meter
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
plexus
large, interlacing network of nerves
pons
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
receptor
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. Skin, ears, eyes and taste buds are receptors.
sciatic nerve
nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
sensory nerves
carry messages to the brain & spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.
stimulus
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
stroma
Connective and supportive tissue of an organ, Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
sulcus
depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
sympathetic nerves
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
synapse
space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell
thalamus
Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
vagus nerve
10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, traches, bronche, lungs, aorta, esophagus, & stomach
ventricles of the brain
Canals in the brain that contain the cerebrospinal fluid.
cerebello/o
cerebellum
cerebro/o
cerebrum
dur/o
dura meter
encephal/o
brain
gli/o
glial cells
lept/o
thin, slendor
mening/o, meningio
membranes, meninges
my/o
muscle
myel/o
spinal cord
neuro/o
nerve
pont/o
pons
radicul/o
nerve root
thalam/o
thalamus
thec/o
sheath
vag/o
vagus nerve
-algesia, alges/o
excessive sensitivity to pain
-algia
pain
caus/o
burning
comat/o
deep sleep (coma)
-esthesia,esthesi/o
feeling, nervous sensation
kines/o , kinesi/o , -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic
movement
-lepsy
seizure
lex/o
word, phrase
-paresis
weakness
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis
-praxia
action
-sthenia
strength
syncop/o
to cut off, cut short
tax/o
order, coordination
cerebellar
pertaining to the cerebellum
subdural hematoma
collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)
epidural hematoma
collection of blood above the dura mater
encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain
encephalopathy
any disorder or disease of the brain
anencephaly
Partial or complete absence of the brain with associated defects of the cranial vault and scalp occurring during fetal development.
glioblastoma
malignant tumor of the glial cells in the brain
leptomeningeal
The two thinner membranes—the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane—surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
meningeal
pertaining to the meninges
meningioma
a slow-growing encapsulated tumor arising from the meninges and often causing damage by pressing upon the brain and adjacent parts
myelomeningocele
Both the spinal cord and the meninges protrude.
myoneural
pertaining to muscle and nerve
myelogram
x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paraylsis (polio = gray)
neuropathy
disease of the nervous system
polyneuritis
inflammation of many nerves
cerebellopontine
pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons
radiculopathy
disease of the nerve root associated with the spinal cord
radiculitis
an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve
thalamic
pertaining to the thalamus
intrathecal injection
placement of substances into the subarachnoid space
vagal
pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial) nerve
analgesia
absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
hypalgesia
Decreased sensitivity to pain
neuralgia
pain along the course of a nerve
cephalgia
headache
causalgia
persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
comatose
relating to or associated with a coma
anesthesia
loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
paresthesia
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
bradykinesia
extreme slowness in movement
hyperkinesia
excessive movement (overactive)
dyskinesia
difficult or painful movement
akinetic
pertaining to without movement
epilepsy
a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
dyslexia
a serious difficulty learning to read in the usual way
hemiparesis
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
aphasia
loss of the ability to speak
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
quadriplegia
paralysis from the neck down
apraxia
inability to make purposeful movements
neurasthenia
nervous exhaustion
syncopal
pertaining to fainting
ataxia
inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements