Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends (synapses) of some nerve cells.
carry messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves)
middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
a type of glial (neurologic) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. Pons and medulla oblongata are part of the brainstem.
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of brain
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought & memory.
12 pairs of nerves that carry message to and from the brain
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cored (Latin for hard mother)
carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves
a glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
Cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs
White fatty tissue that surrounds, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse condition along axons.
Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
Chemical messenger, released at the end of the nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
Essential distinguishing tissue of the nervous system, includes the brain and spinal cord. This is to distinguish it from surrounding tissues, such as meninges.
peripheral nervous system
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
large, interlacing network of nerves
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. Skin, ears, eyes and taste buds are receptors.
nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
carry messages to the brain & spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Connective and supportive tissue of an organ, Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell
Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, traches, bronche, lungs, aorta, esophagus, & stomach
ventricles of the brain
Canals in the brain that contain the cerebrospinal fluid.
excessive sensitivity to pain
deep sleep (coma)
feeling, nervous sensation
kines/o , kinesi/o , -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic
to cut off, cut short
pertaining to the cerebellum
collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)
collection of blood above the dura mater
Inflammation of the brain
any disorder or disease of the brain
Partial or complete absence of the brain with associated defects of the cranial vault and scalp occurring during fetal development.
malignant tumor of the glial cells in the brain
The two thinner membranes—the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane—surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
pertaining to the meninges
a slow-growing encapsulated tumor arising from the meninges and often causing damage by pressing upon the brain and adjacent parts
Both the spinal cord and the meninges protrude.
pertaining to muscle and nerve
x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paraylsis (polio = gray)
disease of the nervous system
inflammation of many nerves
pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons
disease of the nerve root associated with the spinal cord
an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve
pertaining to the thalamus
placement of substances into the subarachnoid space
pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial) nerve
absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
Decreased sensitivity to pain
pain along the course of a nerve
persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
relating to or associated with a coma
loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
extreme slowness in movement
excessive movement (overactive)
difficult or painful movement
pertaining to without movement
a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
a serious difficulty learning to read in the usual way
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
loss of the ability to speak
paralysis of one side of the body
paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
paralysis from the neck down
inability to make purposeful movements
pertaining to fainting
inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements