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Rel 1000 - Quiz 2 - Religion in China
Terms in this set (70)
How does the "concrete" nature of traditional Chinese religion play out with respect to personal identity?
One Identifies more with aspects around them. How they relate to others. What you personally identify with are concrete things, you are not constructed with inside feelings
Personal identity in China
you're someone's son, an employee, a husband, a friend, an enemy
How does the "concrete" nature of traditional Chinese religion play out with respect to religious identity?
It is impossible to say you are just one religion. You can shop at Whole Foods and go to other stores on other days for groceries. Saying you aren't devoted to one "place" is extremely obscured! They approach religion with syncretism (to draw from them all as they are needed).
There are 3 main teachings in religion in China
Important part of Religion in China
People can use all 3 teachings' ideas and can change daily
How does the "concrete" nature of traditional Chinese religion play out with respect to the role of gods and spirits?
"They only matter if they matter"
Gods and Spirits
The gods do not care if you believe in them or not, they just want respect. Gods can be fired, as their name refer to their positions and not the gods themselves.
Examples of gods and spirits in Religion in China
Shangti is the ruler of the universe and helps keep it going. This is just the position, and it has no care for any humans however most human care for the Earth god. The earth god can not help with small problems.
How does the "concrete" nature of traditional Chinese religion play out with respect to the role of ancestors?
"Only matter if they matter".
can be given the role of certain gods if there is a need for one.
How does the "concrete" nature of traditional Chinese religion play out with respect to divination practices such as feng shui?
"wind and water"
is a practice that follows chi (energy that flows through rooms). It is used by priests to decided where to bury passed parents or where to put a business or home
How does the "concrete" nature of traditional Chinese religion play out with respect to the role of priests?
they are considered to be the middle man between spirits/gods and the people. They are religious experts and tell the gods what the villages wants and also tell the people what the gods want.
Why do most "Western" scholars fail to count the Chinese population as Buddhist, or Confucian, or Daoist?
Most of China's population practices syncretism so by including them it would not be an accurate measure of the world's religions
What, specifically, would happen to our understanding of "the great religions of the world" if we did count the Chinese population as Buddhist, or Confucian, or Daoist?
Christianity, 2.2 billion, 32%
Islam, 1.6 billion, 23%
*Buddhism, 1.5 billion, 22% (was 7% before)
*Confucianism, 1 billion, 15% (was like 1% before)
Hinduism, 1 billion, 15%
*Daoism, 1 billion, 15% (was not even on the radar before)
When did Confucian teachings emerge?
Where did Confucian teachings emerge?
during the Chou Dynasty
With whom did Confucian teachings emerge?
Kung Fu-Tzu (aka Confucius)
How did Confucian teachings emerge?
The Chou Dynasty was having a great deal of social breakdown (there was no governing power to enforce laws "incivility").
Confucius was a cultural conservative, he believed that every social interaction had a corresponding proper ritual that needed to be completed with it.
He was trying the fix the incivility by using conservative rituals.
He wanted to re-instate the classics of the Golden Age Chinese culture by education the children on Chinese history, music, art, dance, and RITUALS.
He was a private teacher and was a failure in his lifetime because he could not get government recognition.
After his death in 479 BCE, the next Dynasty made his ideas the law of the land.
social stability (unsafe to go into public) would exist if civility was brought back
5 Classics of China
Rituals in Confucianism
for every social interaction, there is a proper ritual (most important!)
Basic teachings of Confucius
a system of social and political philosophy which he conveyed to a group of disciples.
-"Way of Heaven"
noble/good person ethics are character based, gradually learn to love doing good deads
warm-heartedness aimed at everyone
demonstrating respect to one's parents
"Way of Heaven"
a path that leads you towards living a life that follows the virtues and will give you the experience of the "heaven"
When did Daoist teachings emerge?
Where do Daoist teachings emerge?
With whom do Daoist teachings emerge?
Lao-Tzu (older than Confucius)
How did Daoist teachings emerge?
He was a manager for the Emperor's museum. He was 160 years old when he departed from the museum in the city and walked into the North Mountains. He chiseled his teaching into a guard post (stone column) they consisted of 5,000 Chinese characters.
Lao-Tzu is believed to still be living in the mountains.
What do Western scholars have to say about this story?
There is no empirical evidence that Lao-Tzu existed. They believe that many scripted it and editors were responsible for the Tao Tu Ching and the oral teachings emerged from all over China
Tao Tu Ching
is a book made form the column's scripture
the 5000 characters he left as knowledge before he disappeared into the mountains
Study of texts and teachings
Philosophical Daoism serves as
the basis for major cultural developments
Philosophical Daoism Example
those in the Tao Te Ching
The everyday Daoism of ordinary people
Practices in Popular Daoism
Martial arts - Tai Chi Chuan
Prayer (to local deities)
"Magical" items (amulets) thought to give protection, health, and healing
Goal in Popular Daoism
vitality, longevity, immortality, good luck, protection
What are the basic teachings of Lao-tzu?
"the way" a wise person lives. it is compared to water. it is everywhere but can't be seen, weighed or analyzed. it is the source from which everything comes from. it can be felt. it is powerful but does nothing.
the natural energy
2 different aspects
passive, quiet, receptive
assertive energy, aggressive
Humans are addicted to __.
we work hard to make things happen.
When humans do yin:
We get yang back
We wear ourselves out
It will never work
to become the kind of person who naturally enjoys non-striving
a practice that does not try to force things to happen, EX: laying a book on a table
What happens in the story, "The Gorge of Lu"?
Gorge: "like a cannon" Lu: a place/city. There is this giagantic waterfall that has tides/currents that are impossible to escape from.
Confucius shows up at a gorge with a waterfall and attempts to rescue an old man swirling in the pond. The old man gets tossed out of the pond and is seen walking away from the gorge. Astounded, Kung Fuzi asked the man how he didn't drown. The old man said that he survived because he didn't struggle and became one with the water.
Naturally, humans do not __, and we do __.
What role does Confucius play in "The Gorge of Lu"?
Confucius is a main character but the story involves an elderly male (Daoist sage) that is constantly jumping into the cannon but Confucius is puzzled at the fact that the old man is continuously getting out of the cannon. The old man informed Confucius that the key was to not struggle against that water and to just sit still and go with the flow of the currents.
When does Shinto emerge?
origins are unknown
Where does Shinto emerge?
have been traced back to prehistoric times around the Japan islands.
There is no known founder
What are the basic teachings of Shinto?
includes the numerous but fragmented folk beliefs in deities and spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, and shamanic healing.
Some of their practices come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions
They believe in Kamis, tsumi, purification practices, norito, & kanagara
2 post structure
-unkind actions (thoughts/words)
-contact with corpses
for ceremonies and rites
wash hands, rinse mouth
formal way of asking for help from kami
experiences where one becomes one with the kami through meditation practices
State Shinto during
The movement that wanted to put all of the religious power into the hands of the emperor.
State Shinto is
In State Shinto
there was no separation of church and state.
This stopped at WWII when Japan surrendered.
This is the Shinto for the imperial family (figure heads) ONLY.
Their kami are their ancestors, the 1st emperor was the grandson of the great sun god Amaterasun.
What happens in the 8th century CE Shinto Creation account, "The Creation of Japan"?
there were 7 generations of heavenly kami in the beginning. the last generation consisted of Izanagi (male) and Izanani (female). They were called to created the world while standing over a bridge with a spear. once they created the world, they came back down to the islands they had made and had a leech-baby (because the woman spoke first)
What are the implications of the story "The Creation of Japan" for men and women and for political order?
Men should have the power in order for the universe to operate correctly
Junzi requires physical body (do things), a mind (understand), and a will (need)
-Women have bodies, minds, and wills
Why can women not be teachers in Confucianism when they have all qualities?
They believe that if the society believes in REN (demonstrating respect to EVERYONE) then they should respect women. Everyone is equal and deserves respect
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