Upgrade to remove ads
21.) Oxygen Therapy & Mechanical Ventilation
Terms in this set (35)
How much of atmospheric air does oxygen account for?
Nasal Cannula (NC)
A length of tubing with two small prongs for insertion into the nares
What is the FiO2 with a NC?
24%-44% at flow rates of 1 to 6 L/min
What can extended use of a NC lead to?
skin breakdown and dry mucous membranes
When should you provide humidification for a client recieving O2 via a NC?
for flow rates of 4 L/min and above
Simple face mask
covers the clients nose and mouth
What is the FiO2 with a simple face mask?
24%-44% at flow rates of 1 to 6 L/min
What is the minimum flow rate for a simple face mask and why?
5/L min to ensure flushing of CO2 from the mask
What are the advantages of a partial rebreather mask?
it has a resevoir bag attached with no valve, this allows the client to rebreathe up to one third of exhaled air together with room air.
What is the FiO2 with a partial rebreather mask?
60-75% at flow rates of 6-11 L/min
What are disadvantages of a partial rebreather mask?
-complete deflation of the reservoir bag during inspiration causes CO2 buildup.
-anxiety, eating, drinking talking are impaired
For a patient using a partial rebreather mask, how will they eat?
give them a NC during meals
What is the FiO2 with a nonrebreather mask?
80-95% at flow rates 10 to 15 L/min to keep the bag two thirds full during inspiration and expiration
Which type of mask delivers the highest O2 concentration possible? (aside from intubation)
What must be intact and functional during each breath on a nonrebreather mask? and how often should this be assessed?
the valve and flap on the mask, assess hourly
Which mask is best suited for clients who have chronic lung disease?
What is the FiO2 delivered with a venturi mask?
24-55% at flow rates of 2 to 10 L/min
Which mask is useful for clients who have facial trauma, burns, and or/thick secretions?
Aerosol mask (face tent)-fits loosely around face and neck
What is the FiO2 delivered with an aerosol mask?
24-100% at flow rates of at least 10 L/min-they provide high humidification with oxygen delivery
What is the FiO2 delivered with a t-piece?
24-100% at flow rates of at least 10 L/min
What can be used for clients who have tracheostomies, laryngectomies, or endotracheal tubes (ET).
WHat can lead to hypoxemia?
interruption of arterial flow
What are early findings of hypoxemia?
pale skin and mucous membranes
elevated blood pressure
-Sx of Respiratory distress (use of accessory muscles, nasal flaring, tracheal tugging, and adventitious lung sounds)
What are late findings of hypoxemia?
confusion and stupor
cyanotic skin and mucous membranes
Signs and symptoms of hypercarbia? (elevated levels of CO2)
What can oxygen toxicity result from?
-high concentrations of oxygen (typically above 50%)
-long durations of oxygen therapy (typically more than 24-48 hr)
-client's degree of lung disease
What are S/S of oxygen toxicity?
What kind of oxygen mask will help decrease the amount of oxygen needed for a client on mechanical ventilation?
-(CPAP) Continuous Positive AIrway Pressure
-(BiPAP) Bilevel positive airway pressure
-(PEEP) Positive End Expiratory Pressure
Why can oxygen induced hypoventilation develop in clients who have COPD and chronic hypoxemia and hypercarbia?
COPD clients rely on low levels of arterial oxygen as their primary drive for breathing. Providing supplemental oxygen at high levels can decrease or eliminate their respiratory drive.
What kind of mask is ideal for a client with COPD if they can tolerate it?
A venturi mask
provides breathing support until lung function is restored, delivering warm (body temperature 37 C [98.6 degree F], 100% humidified oxygen at FiO2 levels between 21-100%.
Positive pressure ventilators
deliver air to the lungs under pressure throughout inspiration and/or expiration to keep the alveoli open during inspiration and to prevent alveolar collapse during expiration.
Assist Control (AC)
Preset ventilator rate and tidal volume.
The client can initiate breaths; however the ventilator takes over and delivers a preset tidal volume
Hyperventilation can result in respiratory alkalosis.
The client may require sedation to decrease respiratory rate.
Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)
Preset ventilator rate and tidal volume. For client-initiated breaths, tidal volume depends on the client's efforts.
Ventilator-initiated breaths are synchronized to reduce competition between the ventilator and the client.
used as a regular mode of ventilation and as a weaning mode (rate decreased to allow more spontaneous ventilation). It can increase the work of breathing and respiratory muscle fatigue.
Pressure Suport ventilation (PSV)
Preset pressure delivered during spontaneous inspiration to reduce work of breathing. The client controls rate and tidal volume. Often used as a weaning mode.
-decreases the work of breathing and promotes respiratory muscle conditioning. No ventilator breaths are delivered.
-does not guarantee minimal minute ventilation. It is
often combined with other modes of ventilation (SIMV, AC).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MH204 schizophrenia psychopharmacology
MH Defense Mechanisms
Mechanical Ventilation Formulas and Norms
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ATI chapter 19 respiratory management and mechanic…
ATI Ch. 19 Respiratory Management and Mechanical V…
ATI Chapter 19 Respiratory Management and Mechanic…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
CVRN Exam Review
week 7 203 lecture
exam 3 203
Exam 1 203