66 terms

Unit 1 Vocabulary

This set combines the sets for lessons 1-3.
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

acronym
a word made up from the initial letters of a phrase or name
adjective
any word that modifies a noun or a pronoun; tells "which one" or "what kind"
adverb
a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; tells when, where, why, or how
affix
a bound mopheme attached to the beginning or end of a word or inserted into it to create a derived or inflected word
antecedent
the noun or noun phrase a pronoun replaces or refers to
article
a, an, the
back-formation
creates a new word by removing a derivational affix believed to have been added to an existing word ("beggar" from "beg") ("conversate" from "conversation"—nonstandard)
base
basic unit (morpheme) of a word
blend
a word created by combining two words in a way that pushes their parts together, like "spork" for an implement that combines the functions of a spoon and fork
borrowing
taking a word from another language
bound morpheme
a morpheme that cannot exist independently and occurs only in combination with one or more other morphemes
clipping
shortening a word to form a new word (like "math" from "mathematics")
coining
making up a new word
comparative, superlative
The -er and -est inflections added to many adjectives and a few adverbs are called the "comparative" (-er) and "superlative" (-est) inflections
compounds
words composed of two or more free morphemes (with or without bound morphemes)
conjunction
word that joins words, phrases, or clauses
content words
words that carry lexical meaning (nouns, verbs, adjectives, some adverbs)
demonstrative pronoun
this, that, these, those
determiner
introduces a noun phrase and makes its meaning specific. There are three kinds: articles, possessives, and demonstratives.
form
considers inflections that can be added to a word, derivational morphemes (particularly suffixes) that have already been added to it, and the way the word patterns with other words
function
the purpose a word serves in a sentence
function words
words like prepositions and articles that carry little or no lexical meaning but serve primarily grammatical purposes
indefinite pronoun
somebody, everything, etc.
inflectional morphemes (inflections)
a morpheme (in Modern English a suffix) added to a word to make it fit a particular grammatical function
interjection
a word or phrase that is exclaimed to express emotion and has little or no grammatical connection to the sentence
morphology
study of the meaningful units in a language, including the study of how they may be divided into categories like the "parts of speech"
noun
traditionally defined as "the name of a person, place, or thing". . . typically accept both the plural inflection (-s, -es, or an irregular form) and the possessive ('s).
open-class words
word categories for which speakers of a language can easily make up new members
personal pronoun
I, you, she, etc
preposition
a closed class of function words that relate a noun phrase to the rest of the sentence
pronoun
traditionally said to be a word that takes the place of a noun
reflexive pronoun
myself, himself, etc.
relative pronoun
that, which, who, etc.
verb
traditionally, "a word that shows action or condition"; they accept four inflections: past tense (-ed), past participle (-en), present participle (-ing), and third person singular present tense (-s).
deep structure
the underlying set of ideas expressed by a sentence; explains how two sentences that look different can have the same meaning
derivational morpheme
a morpheme that carries lexical meaning or changes the part of speech
descriptive grammar
system that tries to describe what speakers of a language actually say or write
dialect
a version of a language
generative-transformational grammar
system that tries to explain how a relatively small number of rules can create or "generate" the unlimited number of sentences that can exist in a language.
grammar
for a linguist, the set of structural rules speakers use to put units of language together in order to convey meaning (or to understand language put together by someone else) or a formal attempt to describe those rules
idiolect
the way an individual speaks a language
IPA
a system devised to provide a separate, distinct symbol for each sound used in language
linguistics
the study of language
morpheme
the smallest MEANINGFUL unit of speech or language
nonstandard dialect
a dialect that is not accepted by speakers of the language as being "correct" or "good" or characteristic of well-educated people
phonology
the study of the sounds of a particular language
phonetics
the study of language sounds in general
pragmatics
the part of linguistics that is concerned with what an utterance actually means in a particular setting or context
prescriptive
a rule or grammar that tells speakers or writers how they SHOULD use the language
root
the basic morpheme of a word
semantics
the part of linguistics that deals with meaning; may or may not be part of grammar
standard dialect
the version of a language that the speakers of the language think they ought to speak or that they expect to hear from educated people
structural grammar
a behaviorist grammar based solely on observation of what native speakers of the language say
syntax
the way morphological units are combined into utterances--Sometimes, not very accurately, said to mean the same thing as grammar
traditional grammar
the Latin-based grammar taught in nearly all American schools at least until the 1960s
bound morpheme
a morpheme that cannot exist independently and occurs only in combination with one or more other morphemes
complex word
a word that has one or more bound morphemes added to its base
compound word
a word that has more than one free morpheme
derivational morpheme
a morpheme that carries lexical (dictionary) meaning or changes the part of speech of the word it is part of
free morpheme
a morpheme that occurs or can occur on its own
inflection
a morpheme added to a word to make it fit a particular grammatical function
morpheme
the smallest MEANINGFUL unit of speech or language
morphology
the study of the meaningful units in a language, including the study of how they may be divided into categories like the "parts of speech"
prefix
an affix added to the beginning of a word
simple word
a word with one free morpheme (and no bound morphemes)
suffix
an affix added to the end of a word
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
STUDY GUIDE