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electronic business; allows the processing, transmitting, storing, and viewing of data in a digital form by using the Internet or a computer network.

Occupational Privacy

Relates to information stored in a computer system, about an individual's activities performed during the course of their profession.

Informational Privacy

Relates to individual's personal information that is collected and stored in a computer system.

Financial Privacy

Relates to an individual's financial data that is stored in the computer systems of financial institutions.

Organizational Privacy

Refers to organizations or governmental agencies that do not want to reveal their trade secrets or any other activities to non-intended entities or persons, especially to competitors or their products or services.

Physical Privacy

Relates to an intrusion into someone's physical body or medical information.

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

Requires that financial as well as non-banking institutions ensure the confidentiality and security of their customers' records and information.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

Applies to all individuals whose health information is created by health care providers, health plans, and health care clearing-houses, whether on paper, in electronic form, or orally communicated.

Customer Proprietary Network Information


The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998

COPPA; took effect on April 21, 2000; requires commercial websites that are geared towards children, or that have actual knowledge that children under the age of 13 are using those sites, to obtain "verifiable parental consent" before collecting personal information from children onlin.


Enables FBI investigators to track emails and website visits by individuals without obtaining a wiretap order or suboena. Investigators need to inform only a judge that the investigation is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation.

Secure Socket Layer

SSL; uses encryption technology in which the personal info of a customer is encrypted or scrambled, through the use of a public key, before it is transmitted over the Internet and then deciphered or de-scrambled, through the use of a private key, after it reaches its destination

Internet Service Provider


Clear History

clears a computer's search history over the internet.

Proxy Software

Makes a computer's Internet surfing anonymous

Anti-virus Software

Provides security and protection against viruses

Anti-phishing Software

Verifies the authenticity of webstites that hide their true URL address.

File shredding

Delete a file from the comoputer system in such a way that it cannot be restored by any means.


Includes books, actor performances, artwork, music composition, etc.

Industrial Property

Includes processes, industrial designs, patents, trademakrs, etc.


A unique symbol or sign used by individuals or organizations to identify their products

Industrial Design

Provides the internal details and functions, form, shape, or color of an object that will be manufactured and used for a specific purpose in an organization or business.

Trade Secret

A process, the design of a machine or equipment, a chemcial formula, or an instrument whose details are known only to its owner and are used for commercial purposes and economic ganis, and whose details are kept secret from the public.


Issued for a product or intellectual property; the owner receives exclusive rights for his work and any financial gains that result from it. Lasts for 20 years.


Protects the owner of intellectual property. No one can use, copy, or adapt their work in any form without the owner's consent.

Counterfeiting software

Also known as software piracy; Someone makes imitation copies of software sold on CDs/DVDs.

Open Source Initiative

OSI; a nonprofit corporation formed to educate people about the concept and benefits of open source techonolgy and to form a community of people involved in open source projects.


When an employee of a company works from home using a company-provided computer, telephone lines, and Internet connections.

Virtual teams

Can "meet" and make important decisions related to the project they are working on, even though they are seperated geographically.

Friendship group

Formed when a number of individual virtual teams communicate with each other

Task group

Formed when a number of individuals are working on a common task.

Interest group

Formed when individuals share a common interest and come together online to discuss that interest.

Command group

Formed when a number of individuals work for the same department.

Global group

When members of a team are from different parts of the world, they form a global virtual team.


Addresses the positioning of an individual's computer monitor, keyboard, and chair, as well as other accessories involved in operatin a computer.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration


Work-Related Musculoskelatal Disorders


Job design

A procedure that lists all of the assigned tasks, including subtasks and duties, a person has to perform to do his/her job.


The process by which employees of companies and governments of different countries cooperate with each other to do business


A local company contracts with an outside company to provide services and manufactured goods, which other wise would have done by a an employee of the local company itself


Occurs when services or operations are contracted to an outside company but are performed locally.

Applications Architect

Designs components of applications, including interfaces, middleware and infrastructure, and complies with employer's design standards.

Business Systems Analyst

BSA; responsible for guiding, aligning, and accurately communicating business needs and processes with IT solutions for various types of customers

Chief Technology Officer

CTO; Responsible for setting the firm's overall technology standards and practices, etc.

Computer Security Specialist

Responsible for assisting with the administration of the information system's security

Computer Programmer

Writes programs

Computer Scientist

A scientist who studies and uses the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application in various computer systems.

Computer Hardware Engineer

Generally design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of computer hardware.

Computer Software Engineer

Design and develop various types of software, including computer games, business applications, operating systems, network control systems, and middleware; etc.

Computer Database Administrator

Design, write, and take care of computer database systems so that the right person can get the right information at the right time; etc.

Digital Media Specialist

Work with computer technology to promote a company, cause, or idea.

Helpdesk Support Specialist

Resolve issues and decide when to create work tickets for issues that can't be solved by phone or email and that require a visit to the user's workspace.

Information Systems Manager

Plan, coordinate, and direct research and design for the computer-related activities of firms.

Lead Applications Developer

Manages software development teams on designing, developing, coding, testing, and debugging of applications.

Manager of Technical Services

Manages help desk operations and support service; etc.

Messaging Administrator

Controls email and groupware systems, including associated servers, operating systems, and backup and recovery programs; he fixes system problems and attends to service requests.

Network Architect or Network Engineer

These are the designers of computer networks; they set up, test, and evaluate systems such as LANs and WANs, the Internet, intranets, and other data communications systems.

Network Manager

Performs direct day-to-day operations and maintenance of the firm's networking technology; collaborates with network engineers, architects, and other team members on the implementation, testing, deployment, and integration of network systems.

Network and Computer Systems Administrator

Designs, installs, and supports and organization's computer systems.

Systems Adminstrator

In-depth technical knowledge of systems hardware and software as well as of operating systems.

Systems Programmer

Responsible for the installation, maintenance, implementation, and tuning of UNIX and other operating systems' hardware and software along with other associated components.

Technical Writer

Writes technical materials such as equipment or product manuals, appendices, and operating and maintenance instructions.

Web Developer

Plans and implements Web-based applications; and coordinates with the product development, marketing, product management and other teams to bring new applications online.

Web Programmer

Provides technical guidance to the program manager and team members on the implementation and maintenance of a project's website; etc.

Computer Information Technology Industry Association

CompTIA; primarily recognized for the A+ certification for an IT professional's ability to work on hardware and software.

Microsoft IT Certification

Awarded after candidates pass a Microsoft exam.

Implicit knowledge

Acquired through experience and observation.

Explicit knowledge

Communicated in a systematic way using methods such as collecting data, writing formulas, designing operational manuals, etc.

Knowledge Management

KM; defined as a variety of techniques, strategies, or practices that identifies, collects, and organizes knowledge to meet a company's objectives by increasing the competitive edge of the company, its profits, productivity, and market shares.

Push technology

Uses products and services, such as PointCast and BackWeb, that pushes information into a computer based on the selection criteria.

Pull technology

The information is collected from outside sources or experts when the company realizes that there is a need for improvement in the company's operations.


Used in knowledge management to store large amounts of information.

Software tools

Can be used to help KM

Enterprise Content Management

ECM; refers to the techniques and strategies used to acquire, organize, manage, warehouse, and deliver content and documents related to an organization and its processes.

Computer security

Also known as information security; a collection of techniques, processes, and protocols that secure all types of information and services provided by computer networks and the Internet from harm, misuse, theft, tampering, natural disasters, unauthorized publication, and stealing by hackers or unauthorized people for personal gain.

Security Architecture

The designing of computer security in such a way that decides how, where, and why security should be placed to protect computers and computer networks on which data is stored and transported.

Computer-Assisted Audit Tools and Techniques


Organizational level strategy

All actions for a company's operations; include the company's long- and short-term goals and how to manage all the activities of its individual units.

Business unit level strategy

An organization can be made up of individually existing business units in different locations; each one can be on division or a wing of the company; each unit is responsible for its assembly or manufacturing of products or services provided to the market.

Departmental unit level strategy

Each business unit is made up of a number of departments. Each one provdes information about its local resources, processes, and manpower.

Direct competition

A competition between two products or two services, in which each of them performs the same function.

Indirect competition

Two products or two services perform similarly and one product or service can easily be substituted by another

Budget competition

A customer will spend whatever money he has available on products or services.

Perfect competition

(pure) There are a large number of manufacturers of products or service providers who sell identical products or provide similar services. Since no one company manufactures the product, the market sets the price of the product.

Monopoly competition

There is one and only one manufacturer of a particular product or one and only one service provider, and other companies are not allowed to enter the market for that product.


Provides information wherever or whenever it is required.


Can help redesign products


Can help improve the manufacturing process of products

Decision Support Systems

DSS; provide support to arrive at decisions fast

Electronic Data Interchange

EDI; helps to monitor the flow of electronic data over networks in required data formats.

Management process

The process of planning and adminstering any type of activity

Operational process

The process of planning and administering a particular type of operation in a business

Supporting process

Process that supports operational processes.

Business Process Modeling

BPM; the study and analysis of existing processes and the act of modifying them in order to improve the efficiency and the quality of the process

Quality Control


Total Quality Management

TQM; a business management tool with one objective; all the departments of an organization must collectively operate in a manner that meets the customers' needs, maximizes the company's profits, and meets the company's goals and objectives

Business to Business

B2B; where the business takes place between wholesalers, governments, manufacturers, banks, farms, and organizations

Business to Consumers

B2C; where the business takes place between the wholesaler and a consumer

Consumer to Consumer

C2C; where the business takes place between two consumers

Black-hat hackers

Enter computer systems with the intention of causing damage or destroying information. They also steal information for personal gains.

White-hat hackers

Enter computer systems to prove that computer systems are vulnerable to outside attacks. They do not want to cause any kind of damage.

Script kiddies

People who don't have knowledge of hacking, but use computer programs written by professional hackers or pre-built tools to hack computers.

Trojan Horse

A virus program that appears to be a useful program, but, behind the scenes, it may cause damage to information stored on the computer.

Encryption virus

A program that searches for personal files and encrypts the personal data stored on those files so that the data file cannot be read.


Programs that travel between networks and that attach themselves to files.

Boot-Sector virus

Attach themselves to boot-sector programs located on the hard drive of a computer.

Script virus

Small file that contains a series of program statements which, when executed, cause damage to a computer.

Macro virus

A series of commands and actions that help automate some tasks.

Logic bomb

A piece of code that will set off a malicious function when certain conditions are met.

Denial-of-service attack

An attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its user.

Software piracy

When someone intentionally steals copyrighted software, copies it to sell for profit or alters or erases the program

Information Privacy Rights

A person or a company has full rights to decide how much and what type of information about them can be collected and used.

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