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112 terms

CLEP Computer Information Systems Ch. 5 (REA)

STUDY
PLAY
e-business
electronic business; allows the processing, transmitting, storing, and viewing of data in a digital form by using the Internet or a computer network.
Occupational Privacy
Relates to information stored in a computer system, about an individual's activities performed during the course of their profession.
Informational Privacy
Relates to individual's personal information that is collected and stored in a computer system.
Financial Privacy
Relates to an individual's financial data that is stored in the computer systems of financial institutions.
Organizational Privacy
Refers to organizations or governmental agencies that do not want to reveal their trade secrets or any other activities to non-intended entities or persons, especially to competitors or their products or services.
Physical Privacy
Relates to an intrusion into someone's physical body or medical information.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
Requires that financial as well as non-banking institutions ensure the confidentiality and security of their customers' records and information.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Applies to all individuals whose health information is created by health care providers, health plans, and health care clearing-houses, whether on paper, in electronic form, or orally communicated.
Customer Proprietary Network Information
CPNI
The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998
COPPA; took effect on April 21, 2000; requires commercial websites that are geared towards children, or that have actual knowledge that children under the age of 13 are using those sites, to obtain "verifiable parental consent" before collecting personal information from children onlin.
The USA PATRIOT Act
Enables FBI investigators to track emails and website visits by individuals without obtaining a wiretap order or suboena. Investigators need to inform only a judge that the investigation is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation.
Secure Socket Layer
SSL; uses encryption technology in which the personal info of a customer is encrypted or scrambled, through the use of a public key, before it is transmitted over the Internet and then deciphered or de-scrambled, through the use of a private key, after it reaches its destination
Internet Service Provider
ISP
Clear History
clears a computer's search history over the internet.
Proxy Software
Makes a computer's Internet surfing anonymous
Anti-virus Software
Provides security and protection against viruses
Anti-phishing Software
Verifies the authenticity of webstites that hide their true URL address.
File shredding
Delete a file from the comoputer system in such a way that it cannot be restored by any means.
Copyright
Includes books, actor performances, artwork, music composition, etc.
Industrial Property
Includes processes, industrial designs, patents, trademakrs, etc.
Trademark
A unique symbol or sign used by individuals or organizations to identify their products
Industrial Design
Provides the internal details and functions, form, shape, or color of an object that will be manufactured and used for a specific purpose in an organization or business.
Trade Secret
A process, the design of a machine or equipment, a chemcial formula, or an instrument whose details are known only to its owner and are used for commercial purposes and economic ganis, and whose details are kept secret from the public.
Patent
Issued for a product or intellectual property; the owner receives exclusive rights for his work and any financial gains that result from it. Lasts for 20 years.
Copyright
Protects the owner of intellectual property. No one can use, copy, or adapt their work in any form without the owner's consent.
Counterfeiting software
Also known as software piracy; Someone makes imitation copies of software sold on CDs/DVDs.
Open Source Initiative
OSI; a nonprofit corporation formed to educate people about the concept and benefits of open source techonolgy and to form a community of people involved in open source projects.
Telecommuting
When an employee of a company works from home using a company-provided computer, telephone lines, and Internet connections.
Virtual teams
Can "meet" and make important decisions related to the project they are working on, even though they are seperated geographically.
Friendship group
Formed when a number of individual virtual teams communicate with each other
Task group
Formed when a number of individuals are working on a common task.
Interest group
Formed when individuals share a common interest and come together online to discuss that interest.
Command group
Formed when a number of individuals work for the same department.
Global group
When members of a team are from different parts of the world, they form a global virtual team.
Ergonomics
Addresses the positioning of an individual's computer monitor, keyboard, and chair, as well as other accessories involved in operatin a computer.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA
Work-Related Musculoskelatal Disorders
WMSD
Job design
A procedure that lists all of the assigned tasks, including subtasks and duties, a person has to perform to do his/her job.
Globalization
The process by which employees of companies and governments of different countries cooperate with each other to do business
Outsourcing
A local company contracts with an outside company to provide services and manufactured goods, which other wise would have done by a an employee of the local company itself
Insourcing
Occurs when services or operations are contracted to an outside company but are performed locally.
Applications Architect
Designs components of applications, including interfaces, middleware and infrastructure, and complies with employer's design standards.
Business Systems Analyst
BSA; responsible for guiding, aligning, and accurately communicating business needs and processes with IT solutions for various types of customers
Chief Technology Officer
CTO; Responsible for setting the firm's overall technology standards and practices, etc.
Computer Security Specialist
Responsible for assisting with the administration of the information system's security
Computer Programmer
Writes programs
Computer Scientist
A scientist who studies and uses the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application in various computer systems.
Computer Hardware Engineer
Generally design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of computer hardware.
Computer Software Engineer
Design and develop various types of software, including computer games, business applications, operating systems, network control systems, and middleware; etc.
Computer Database Administrator
Design, write, and take care of computer database systems so that the right person can get the right information at the right time; etc.
Digital Media Specialist
Work with computer technology to promote a company, cause, or idea.
Helpdesk Support Specialist
Resolve issues and decide when to create work tickets for issues that can't be solved by phone or email and that require a visit to the user's workspace.
Information Systems Manager
Plan, coordinate, and direct research and design for the computer-related activities of firms.
Lead Applications Developer
Manages software development teams on designing, developing, coding, testing, and debugging of applications.
Manager of Technical Services
Manages help desk operations and support service; etc.
Messaging Administrator
Controls email and groupware systems, including associated servers, operating systems, and backup and recovery programs; he fixes system problems and attends to service requests.
Network Architect or Network Engineer
These are the designers of computer networks; they set up, test, and evaluate systems such as LANs and WANs, the Internet, intranets, and other data communications systems.
Network Manager
Performs direct day-to-day operations and maintenance of the firm's networking technology; collaborates with network engineers, architects, and other team members on the implementation, testing, deployment, and integration of network systems.
Network and Computer Systems Administrator
Designs, installs, and supports and organization's computer systems.
Systems Adminstrator
In-depth technical knowledge of systems hardware and software as well as of operating systems.
Systems Programmer
Responsible for the installation, maintenance, implementation, and tuning of UNIX and other operating systems' hardware and software along with other associated components.
Technical Writer
Writes technical materials such as equipment or product manuals, appendices, and operating and maintenance instructions.
Web Developer
Plans and implements Web-based applications; and coordinates with the product development, marketing, product management and other teams to bring new applications online.
Web Programmer
Provides technical guidance to the program manager and team members on the implementation and maintenance of a project's website; etc.
Computer Information Technology Industry Association
CompTIA; primarily recognized for the A+ certification for an IT professional's ability to work on hardware and software.
Microsoft IT Certification
Awarded after candidates pass a Microsoft exam.
Implicit knowledge
Acquired through experience and observation.
Explicit knowledge
Communicated in a systematic way using methods such as collecting data, writing formulas, designing operational manuals, etc.
Knowledge Management
KM; defined as a variety of techniques, strategies, or practices that identifies, collects, and organizes knowledge to meet a company's objectives by increasing the competitive edge of the company, its profits, productivity, and market shares.
Push technology
Uses products and services, such as PointCast and BackWeb, that pushes information into a computer based on the selection criteria.
Pull technology
The information is collected from outside sources or experts when the company realizes that there is a need for improvement in the company's operations.
Databases
Used in knowledge management to store large amounts of information.
Software tools
Can be used to help KM
Enterprise Content Management
ECM; refers to the techniques and strategies used to acquire, organize, manage, warehouse, and deliver content and documents related to an organization and its processes.
Computer security
Also known as information security; a collection of techniques, processes, and protocols that secure all types of information and services provided by computer networks and the Internet from harm, misuse, theft, tampering, natural disasters, unauthorized publication, and stealing by hackers or unauthorized people for personal gain.
Security Architecture
The designing of computer security in such a way that decides how, where, and why security should be placed to protect computers and computer networks on which data is stored and transported.
Computer-Assisted Audit Tools and Techniques
CAATTs
Organizational level strategy
All actions for a company's operations; include the company's long- and short-term goals and how to manage all the activities of its individual units.
Business unit level strategy
An organization can be made up of individually existing business units in different locations; each one can be on division or a wing of the company; each unit is responsible for its assembly or manufacturing of products or services provided to the market.
Departmental unit level strategy
Each business unit is made up of a number of departments. Each one provdes information about its local resources, processes, and manpower.
Direct competition
A competition between two products or two services, in which each of them performs the same function.
Indirect competition
Two products or two services perform similarly and one product or service can easily be substituted by another
Budget competition
A customer will spend whatever money he has available on products or services.
Perfect competition
(pure) There are a large number of manufacturers of products or service providers who sell identical products or provide similar services. Since no one company manufactures the product, the market sets the price of the product.
Monopoly competition
There is one and only one manufacturer of a particular product or one and only one service provider, and other companies are not allowed to enter the market for that product.
Database
Provides information wherever or whenever it is required.
AutoCAD
Can help redesign products
AutoCAM
Can help improve the manufacturing process of products
Decision Support Systems
DSS; provide support to arrive at decisions fast
Electronic Data Interchange
EDI; helps to monitor the flow of electronic data over networks in required data formats.
Management process
The process of planning and adminstering any type of activity
Operational process
The process of planning and administering a particular type of operation in a business
Supporting process
Process that supports operational processes.
Business Process Modeling
BPM; the study and analysis of existing processes and the act of modifying them in order to improve the efficiency and the quality of the process
Quality Control
QC
Total Quality Management
TQM; a business management tool with one objective; all the departments of an organization must collectively operate in a manner that meets the customers' needs, maximizes the company's profits, and meets the company's goals and objectives
Business to Business
B2B; where the business takes place between wholesalers, governments, manufacturers, banks, farms, and organizations
Business to Consumers
B2C; where the business takes place between the wholesaler and a consumer
Consumer to Consumer
C2C; where the business takes place between two consumers
Black-hat hackers
Enter computer systems with the intention of causing damage or destroying information. They also steal information for personal gains.
White-hat hackers
Enter computer systems to prove that computer systems are vulnerable to outside attacks. They do not want to cause any kind of damage.
Script kiddies
People who don't have knowledge of hacking, but use computer programs written by professional hackers or pre-built tools to hack computers.
Trojan Horse
A virus program that appears to be a useful program, but, behind the scenes, it may cause damage to information stored on the computer.
Encryption virus
A program that searches for personal files and encrypts the personal data stored on those files so that the data file cannot be read.
Worms
Programs that travel between networks and that attach themselves to files.
Boot-Sector virus
Attach themselves to boot-sector programs located on the hard drive of a computer.
Script virus
Small file that contains a series of program statements which, when executed, cause damage to a computer.
Macro virus
A series of commands and actions that help automate some tasks.
Logic bomb
A piece of code that will set off a malicious function when certain conditions are met.
Denial-of-service attack
An attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its user.
Software piracy
When someone intentionally steals copyrighted software, copies it to sell for profit or alters or erases the program
Information Privacy Rights
A person or a company has full rights to decide how much and what type of information about them can be collected and used.