PoliSci 102 Unit 3 Inquizitive
Terms in this set (166)
Government interference in individuals' lives should be kept to a minimum
Every citizen should have the opportunity to take part in the government process
Equality of opportunity
All individuals should be allowed to seek personal and material success
When individuals try to form opinions about a particular policy issue, they tend to be influenced by...
According to a 2014 public opinion poll, which of the following issues are women more likely to favor than men?
banning assault rifles
raising minimum wage
cutting defense spending
What is the goal of a push poll?
To shape the respondent's perception of the candidate or issue in question
If a public-opinion survey suffers from selection bias, what has occurred?
The survey organization did not get a random sample
Th mass media _________ neutral messengers for others' ideas. The media have had _____________ independent impact on public opinion
By using ________________________, average citizens form opinions that are ________ consistent with their underlying preferences
What of the following statements about Americans' ideology is correct?
More Americans today identify themselves as "conservatives" than "liberals"
What is correct about the effect of party polarization on public opinion?
- Party endorsements have a larger impact on opinion formation than it used to
- Party polarization decreases the impact of other information on public opinion
What elements do pollsters have to consider before conducting a poll that will forecast the election?
- Wording of survey questions
- A large sample
- Ability to randomly select respondents
Which topic is public opinion most influenced by presidential messages?
Government policy _______ to public opinion; public opinion ________ to government policy.
The government can easily and substantially influence public opinion
People of all incomes participate at about the same rate in what type of political participation?
Attending a protest or march
People who earn higher incomes participate more in which types of political participation?
- signing a petition
- contacting a member of Congress
- attending a city council meeting
Incidents of excessive use of police force have been widely publicized recently. What effect have they had on white perceptions of racism in America?
- About half of white feel that blacks and white are not treated equally by police
- The number of white who feel that racism is a big problem has increased over time
When Americans with different income levels differ in policy preferences, what steamers are correct regarding actual policy outcomes?
- Actual policies reflect the preferences of the affluent
- Actual polices show little relationship to the preferences of the poor and middle class
What factors influence American's beliefs and opinions?
Pollsters are using online surveys, which are ________ costly and ______ slow than telephone surveys. However, online surveys are _________ likely to collect a random sample than telephone surveys
less (all three)
What are the three reasons that policy change may shape public opinion?
- The policy may expose the public to a new idea
- A policy might act as a signal of an ethical or moral view
- The policy may give the public new information
Which religious groups are more likely to favor the Democrat party?
Which religious groups are more likely to favor the Republican party?
Today a plurality of Americans consider themselves ________________. Among young voters, about _______ percent of people identify this way
In general which political or ideological group is most likely to support the economic and social status quo?
When elected officials pursue policies that are not in line with centrist opinion, it is often because...
they are prioritizing the views of a loyal voting bloc over others
On which of the following topics is the government most likely to respond to shifts in public opinion?
same sex marriage
What is the best definition for political socialization?
the process through which political beliefs and values are formed
What sample size is generally sufficient for accurately measuring national public opinion?
What is correct regarding the effect of marketplace of ideas on opinion formation?
Competing forces try to persuade as many people as possible, and few people resist modification of their beliefs
In public opinon polling, what is a random sample?
Each person within the specified population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent
On which topics is public opinion is most influenced by presidential messages?
How has the media landscape changed as the FCC's regulatory powers changed in the past several decades?
Restrictions on media ownership have been relaxed
How does social media make consumption of news different for Millennials?
It creates a feedback loop that established relationships with politicians
newspapers subordinate to political parties
politicians utilizing nonpartisan press
Most leaked confidential information comes from _________ government officials, with ______________ relationships with journalists.
Why do press releases commonly appear in newspapers?
- press releases can be nearly indistinguishable from a real story
- reporters are able to update content while doing little work
- the newspaper can fill its pages at little cost
What is true regarding changes in the media landscape since 1991?
- the internet has replaced the newspaper as people's secondary source for news
- newspaper readership has declined
Which forms of social media participation do 18 to 29 year old adults participate more than other age groups?
- comment on a news story online
- post pictures related to political issues
- discuss politics online
What federal regulations on the media are still in effect?
- equal time provision
- right of rebuttal
What media forms is the FCC able to regulate content on?
Why did the FCC stop enforcing the fairness doctrine?
There are so many radio and TV stations that different viewpoint are already being presented
The FCC was developed to serve which functions?
- allocate radio and TV frequencies
- regulate broadcast content
- promote competition in the broadcast industry
Following 9/11, the media wrote many stories about Bush's performance on protecting the nation from terrorism and few stories on the economy. What two means of media influence is this an example of?
- agenda setting
How has the Supreme Court responded to newspapers' attempts to publish information?
It has supported publication of leaked information
What characteristics reflect traditional and online media?
- online media have a higher potential for misinformation than traditional media
- traditional media are often forced to account for online media reports in their stories
Why is the FCC unable to regular "indecent" sexual material on the internet?
The Supreme Court overturned congressional regulations
How have some newspapers responded to declining circulation numbers?
- charging customers for reading news online
- closing foreign bureaus and offices in DC
Why did adversarial journalism emerge in the 1960s and 1970s?
- American officials leaked information that was critical of administration policy to reporters
- White House officials pressured publishers to block reports critical of war
- National newspapers discovered an audience of coverage critical of administration policy
What factor led to the development of professionalized journalists and the norm of "objectivity"?
The best way to appeal to a large audience is to produce a standardized, neutral news product
What functions does the media serve in democratic politics? (3)
- publicize and assess the claims of political candidates
- examine government policies and platforms
- reveal wrongdoing
Most of the national news published by local newspapers is provided by which of the following sources?
- major newspapers
- the AP
When the media does not report on a particular idea, which form of influence are they exercising?
In the past twenty years, the number of media sources has __________. In that same period of time, political knowledge in the electorate has _______________________.
increased; remained constant
The following terms are often confused: ___________________ are concerned with influencing the policies of government, ____________________ are interested in influencing who gets elected, and ________________ are interested in the personnel of government, often directly running individuals for political office.
political action committees
During the 1890s and 1930s, we saw a massive increase in the number of interest groups because of ____________________________.
rapid growth in the size of government
Which interest group is most likely to be involved in protesting the expansion of oil pipelines in the US?
Changes in technology have helped activist groups grow since the 1970s
What represent the things that most interest group organizational structures have in common?
leadership, money, and members
What is an example of an outsider strategy?
Which three PAC groupings were most beneficial overall to Republican candidates?
finance, insurance, and real estate
What characterize states with more trade associations?
larger population states
In general, groups organized on behalf of businesses and industries have more lobbyists and more financial resources than citizen groups
The National League of Cities, the National Governor's Association, and Harvard University are all examples of what kind of interest group?
What best explains the pattern of lobbying expenditures by the Chamber of Commerce?
The Chamber of Commerce spends more during election years
What are examples of New Politics interest groups?
Online advocacy (net roots) organizations differ from traditional interest groups in that they have a more streamlined staff structure and less bureaucracy
What statements accurately describe how lobbyists interact with Congress?
Lobbyists provide information to busy members of Congress
Lobbyists can often have direct input into the exact language that appears in legislation
Example of public-sector interest group
National League of Cities
Example of professional associations
American Bar Association
Example of economic and corporate groups
Independent Petroleum Association of America
Example of labor groups
Example of citizen groups
Natural Resources Defense Council
cannot contribute directly to candidates
may raise unlimited sums from corporations, unions, and individuals
started in the 1970s
can contribute up to $5000 to a federal candidate for office
Example of purposive benefit
An individual draws pride from having contributed to an interest group's introduction of a particular piece of legislation
Example of solidary benefit
An individual joins an environmental protection organization to meet and network with other local environmentalists
Examples of material benefits
An interest group member receives a free t-shirt for joining
An interest group member receives discounts from local businesses related to the interest group
When an organization's members send letters and make telephone calls to their elected officials on behalf of an interest group, it is called ________________ lobbying. This contrasts with _______________ lobbying, which is designed to mimic a spontaneous outpouring of support by members but is, in actuality, carefully orchestrated by an interest group
Interest groups have to do more with political ______________ whereas political policies have to do with political ________________.
How did the federal government in the 1960s and 1970s affect the number of interest groups?
New social programs and court rulings led to the formation of many new interest groups
Which statements about PACs are accurate?
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) failed to restrict PAC operations overall
Evidence suggests that interest groups' campaign contributions influence behavior in Congress
_________________ benefits are provided in the form of emails, conferences, training events, and other communications from a group. Netroots organizations are less likely than traditional associations to offer ________________ benefits to members.
Which period saw beginning of expansion of labor unions and the creation of many trade associations such as the National Association of Manufacturers?
1880s and 1890s
What primarily brought about the formation of the New Politics movement, which spurred interest group growth?
the experiences of the civil rights and antiwar movements
What decade saw the beginning of the New Politics movement and interest groups associated with it?
What role do members play in staff organization interest groups?
Pay dues and make contributions
Why does the notice and comment process matter to interest groups?
It allows interest groups an opportunity to influence the implementation of laws by federal agencies
In what way does an issue network differ from an icon triangle?
An issue network includes interested individuals and activists who would not be part of a strict iron triangle
T/F National conventions no longer spend much time on debating the selection of the presidential nominee for their party
What is the key feature that makes American political parties different from interest groups?
They try to control the government by winning elections
T/F The Democrats and Republicans have grown more similar in terms of their policy positions over the last fifty years
The "New Deal" Coalition that developed in the 1930s system was eventually undone by conflicts over which of the following issues?
The Vietnam War; civil rights
To prevent having multiple candidates from the same party confusing voters in a general election, political parties take which of the following actions?
hold nomination races
After the decline of party machines, state and local party organizers have become active in which ways?
recruiting candidates; voter registration drives; spending money on "party building" activities
What best characterizes people's attachments to political parties?
Party attachments tend to be stable emotional and rational ties
What group is responsible for changes to a national political party's rules on voting practices, such as the 1972 change in rules that called for the use of proportional representation voting system in the Democratic National Convention?
the national party itself
From the 1950s until the early 2000s, which party was more successful at using the presidency for party building and mobilizing its base to win elections?
The transfer of national ________ money to state and local organizations has led to _________ differences between state and national parties.
The state with the highest turnout in presidential primaries is usually ____________________. The state with the highest turnout in presidential caucuses is usually __________.
New Hampshire; Iowa
Traditionally, ____________________ were the leaders in voter registration activity. More recently, __________________ have taken a more active role.
political parties; civic groups
Major moments in the history of American political parties in order from earliest to latest
1. Federalists represent New England merchants and argue for protective tariffs
2. The Democrats and Whigs become the two major political parties
3. The Republican Party comes into existence
4. The New Deal realignment leaves the Democratic Party dominant for several decades
What are the three fundamental problems of democracy that political parties solve?
mobilizing voters; regulating the number of people seeking office; accomplishing legislative goals
What do we call the meetings where political or legislative groups get together to select candidates, plan strategy, and make decisions regarding legislation?
What is an example of external mobilization?
aspiring politicians creating party organizations
What does Donald Trump's victory in 2016 presidential election suggest about the power political parties have over their candidates and fellow party members?
Party leaders are limited in their abilities to choose and control their nominees
How do parties influence the committee system?
membership depends on the percentage of seats held by the party; transfer from one committee to another require party authorization
T/F The US uses a proportional representation system
Which are the main characteristics of the American national electoral system?
plurality system; single-member district
Which of the following are examples of patronage that political party organizations used during the party machine era?
distributing food to supporters; offering a garbage collector job to a supporter; helping immigrants process citizenship paperwork
Why are third parties often short-lived?
The major parties absorb their programs and their popular ideas
What is the current state of party discipline in Congress?
It is stronger today than it used to be
Which two statements best reflect the current state of parties in the electorate?
party identification has gotten stronger among active voters; there are more independent voters now than ever before
The Whig Party emerged from the _____________ Party in the second-party system. By the end of the third party system, the Whigs had largely been subsumed by the _________________ Party
Under the law, 527 committees can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money, as long as which of the following provisions are met?
The 527's activities are not coordinated with the formal party organization; The goal of the spending is to increase voter turnout
What is the most important factor in determining how many major political parties a country has?
Why do party activists tend to devote their time to politics?
they have strong beliefs
In order to equally represent and mobilize the broadest range of voters, which two of the following characteristics do political parties need to have?
At the Democratic and Republican national conventions, delegates meet to
draft the party's campaign platform; nominate the party's presidential candidate
What happens during an electoral realignment?
A new party supplants the ruling party
What is "dark" about dark money?
The donors and the amount they contribute do not have to be made public
One of the defining features of modern American politics is the division between the two major parties on most policy issues with little crossover. This is known as party ______________.
protective tariffs; creation of national bank
free trade; promotion of agricultural interests
How is the Speaker of the House chosen?
selected by the House majority party
What is the most effective way to boost voter mobilization?
face-to-face interaction with a canvasser
More stringent voter ID laws reduce overall turnout.
Popular in western states like Oregon, Washington and California, __________________________ tend(s) to boost turnout among those less likely to vote.
permanent absentee ballots
The process by which people are organized for political activity is....
Which two laws and amendments guaranteed suffrage for African Americans?
Voting Rights Act of 1965 & 15th Amendment
To vote in US elections, one must first meet which of the following requirements?
register to vote
Allowing citizens to vote directly on things like legalization of marijuana or changing the minimum wage are examples of ______________________. These have a tendency to _____________ turnout.
ballot initiatives; increase
Put groups in the order in which they received the right to vote from earliest to most recent.
1. white males with property
2. black males
4. people aged 18-20
What are considered "battleground" states in presidential elections?
Penn, Ohio, Florida
What are considered "non battleground" states in presidential elections?
NY, CA, TX
Statewide ballot initiatives tend to ___________ turnout, especially in __________ election years
How many of the 435 House of Reps races are competitive every year?
A few dozen
Why do younger people vote less often than older people?
- older voters are better organized to participate
- campaign ads rarely target younger voters
Which form of political participation is most common in the US?
Voting in a general election
As a consequence of mobilization efforts like the Moral Majority which religious group began supporting the Republican Party in the 1980s
One advantage digital media has over traditional media concerning campaigns is its low cost.
Congressional elections happen every _____ years.
The 2010 Supreme Court decision in Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission had what effect of campaign financing?
allowed SuperPACs to spend unlimited money in independent support of candidates
Which of the following groups was most important for Donald Trump's victory in the 2016 presidential general election?
white working-class voters
Which of the following terms describes a candidate who is running for re-election to a position in Congress that she already holds?
If Joe Smith, a registered Republican voter, is allowed to vote in the Democratic primary, he must live in a state that uses which type of primary system?
Since America's founding, candidates for president have been nominated using a variety of methods. Put the following nomination methods in order from earliest in American history to the most recent.
1. congressional King Caucus
2. delegates chosen by state party leaders
3. delegates chosen by primaries and caucuses
organizationally driven, local campaign
Mass media campaign:
money-intensive, statewide campaign
Buckley vs. Valeo (1974)
introduced idea that campaign contributions count as speech
Citizens United vs. FEC (2010)
government could not restrict independent expenditures by corporations
McCutcheon et al. vs. FEC (2014)
removed limits on individuals' campaign contributions
In the US which levels of government are most responsible for administering elections?
county gov'ts, state gov'ts, city gov'ts
Which of the following set groups such as 527s and 501c4s apart from more traditional campaign finance groups such as political action committees?
- these groups cannot coordinate directly with campaigns
- these groups are not subject to the spending limits of the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act
Which characteristics describe citizens in states with ballot initiatives?
- more knowledge about politics
- higher levels of turnout
Which group was the primary election system introduced to weaken?
Which form of electoral system is most common in the US?
As a retrospective voter, you might consider which of the following?
how the economy did during the president's previous term in office
The trend in campaign finance law over time has been toward which of the following?
fewer restrictions on campaign donations
Why have most major party candidates declined federal funding for their presidential campaigns recently?
they could raise and spend far more money on their own
Which issues are candidates likely to emphasize in an election?
those that most voters agree with
What is the first step in a campaign for an aspiring presidential candidate?
forming exploratory committee
In the 2016 election, which electoral factor was most significant in Hillary Clinton's loss to Donald Trump?
A large part of her voters were concentrated in a few high-population states
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