90 terms

PCN-107 Midterm

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Preconsciousness
Freud/Psychoanalysis: The ___________________
houses all memory that has been lost to consciousness but can be accessed and remembered with relative ease
Consciousness
Freud: Psychoanalysis: all of our feelings, thoughts, fantasies, and behaviors of which we are aware, is a small part of what Freud believed motivates the individual
Unconsciousness
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: more primitive mind, however, is the true motivator of our underlying desires and wants. The _____________________ is driven by our id energy, which is comprised of our instincts
Defense Mechanisms
Freud/ psychoanalysis: we are inherently driven to satisfy our needs, placing restraints is unnatural and will inevitably lead to neurotic and even psychotic behavior as the individual attempts to control his or her urges through the use of ______________. Healthy when assist the individual in functioning in adaptive ways in society; however, they become pathological when they are overused and result in behaviors that impair
everyday living.
Anxiety
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: Moral, Neurotic, Realistic
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Freud/ Psyschoanalysis: Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital stages
Oedipus Complex
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: desire to sleep with or possess one's mother and kill one's father
Dream Analysis
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: _________ are a projection of our unconscious and represent symbolic images of our desires and wishes
ID
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: All of the psychic energy from our life and death instincts comprise the ___—or more literally, "the it." We are born all ____, and Freud believed that the _____, sometimes called the primitive mind, unconsciously motivates almost all of our behaviors. The ___ operates from raw, irrational impulses called primary process, and is fueled by the pleasure principle, whose aim is to reduce tension through the simplest means possible
Ego
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: without an id, the _____ has no function. Called the "I" by Freud, the ______ develops sometime after the infant is born as the child begins to wrestle with the external world of reality. Partly conscious, but also operating out of the precociousness and unconscious, the manner in which the _____ functions is often called secondary process (created secondarily after the id has formed). The main function of the ____ is to temper the id by finding socially acceptable ways to meet the demands of the id.
Superego
Freud/ psychoanalysis: MORAL IMPERATIVES (our moral compass) internalization of the moral imperatives of our parents and other significant others, and led to the development of a personal conscience. Freud believed that the _______ emerged from the individual's Oedipal struggle. Operates out of unconscious and precociousness. Contains the "beast within."
Transeference
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: clients putting their feelings on counselors. Sometimes forming a "false connection"
Countertransference
Freud/ Psychoanalysis: the therapist transfers feelings onto the client.
Collective Unconscious
Jung/ Analytical: a depository of ancient images which we all hold in common.
Archetypes
Jung/ Analytical: tendency to differentiate aspects of the person. Create complexes. Makes us "human"
Thinking/Feeling/Intuiting/Sensing
Jung/ Analytical: These functions are the ways in which we operate in our outer or inner world
Persona
Jung/ Analytical: the mask that hides aspects of ourselves from others and sometimes even from ourselves. It helps us get along with one another, and indeed, we probably would be a pretty chaotic society without it
Self
Jung/ Analyitcal: the _____ represents the unity of
consciousness and unconsciousness. Since consciousness expands as we age, the _____ is always changing as we integrate different parts of ourselves into consciousness. The ____ has to do with what we are becoming and is closely related to the process of individuation.
Shadow
Jung/ Analytical: parts of our life that we do not want to claim. It has the power to encapsulate our hidden parts and keep them safely walled off from consciousness.
It is all of what we are not in our conscious lives.
Psyche
Jung/ Analytical: represented all of our psychological processes and contained all which is in consciousness, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious.
Anima/animus
Jung/ Analytical: We all have an inner gender-opposite that calls us. Male: inner opposite is anima; Female is animus.
Introvert/extrovert
Jung/ Analytical: Introvert: gets energy from being alone
Extrovert: gets energy from being in the presence of others
Mandala
Jung/ Analytical:A concentric diagram that was used centuries ago to represent the divine, God, wholeness, and existence, the _________ is still used today as a source of meditation, peace, and harmony, and to indicate one's search for completeness. Each person's _________ is, of course, unique, and symbolic of his or her own path toward wholeness.
Striving for Perfection
Individual: developed by Alfred Adler and his holistic theory of personalty development, aim of therapy is more adoptive feelings of inferiority (instead people are to try to strive for superiority).
Complexes
Jung/ Analytical: Kind of like archetypes. Formed in personal unconscious. indeterminate number of ________ are formed out of repressed material and fueled by our archetypes
Inferiority
Adler/ Individual: feelings of _______________ drive a person.
Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences
Social Interest
Adler/ Individual: In Adler's theory, a feeling of openness with all humanity.
Birth Order
Adler/ Individual: Adler identified five psychological positions from which children tend to view life: oldest, second of only two, middle, youngest, and only. Actual ___________ ___________ itself is less important than a person's interpretation of his or her place in the family.
Private logic
Adler/ Individual: unconscious beliefs. Leads to a "fictional final goal"
Style of Life
Adler/ Individual: reflective of the person's movement toward his or her subjective final goal. Whether our subjective final goal results in a lifestyle that is reflected by healthy or maladaptive behaviors, it is deeply rooted in the past, affects our present, and leads us toward our future
Teleology
Adler/ Individual: The goal becomes the final cause, the ultimate independent variable. To the extent that the goal provides the key for the understanding the individual, it is a working hypothesis on the part of the psychologist
Compensation
Individual: According to Adler, efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities. Individuals do this to "make up for" the abilities they don't currently have.
Courage
Adler/ Individual: being willing to take a look at how early feelings of inferiority fueled their private logic, led to compensatory behaviors, and were partially responsible for the development of their subjective final goals. These individuals must develop the __________ to face life's difficulties and take responsibility for change.
Encouragement
Adler/ Individual: helping clients become aware of their own worth" To facilitate a client's sense of self-worth,) suggest a broad range of ________________________ skills that include "demonstrating concern for clients through active listening and empathy;communicating respect for, and confidence in, clients; focusing on clients' strengths, assets, and resources; helping clients generate perceptual alternatives for discouraging fictional beliefs; focusing on efforts and progress; and helping clients see the humor in life experiences
"As if"
Adler/Individual: "Fake it til you make it" and role-playing.
Catching oneself
Adler/ Individual: this technique helps clients gain awareness of their self-defeating thoughts and behaviors. As clients become increasingly aware of the maladaptive behaviors they exhibit that are driven by their subjective final goals, counselors can suggest that they try to "catch" these behaviors prior to their happening
Meaninglessness
Frankl/Existential: existential vacuum—the awareness that existence is an absurd joke and ___________
Guilt
Frankl/ Existential: Neurotic or moral ________ is the remorseful
feelings one has from having behaved in a manner that is damaging to self or to
others.
Existential _________ is experienced when the individual realizes he
or she has not lived to his or her fullest potential because the individual has
avoided dealing with core life issues and its associated existential anxiety.
Authenticity
Frankl/ Existential: acceptance of many of the basic existential struggles already mentioned and that we have taken responsibility for our lives.
It also means we have chosen to be honest with ourselves and open with others
Dialectical Methods
Frankl/ Existential: showing respect for the client, encouraging an open dialogue between the client and therapist, and providing an accepting atmosphere that allows for philosophical discourse about the meaning of life.
Isolation
Frankl/ Existential: One can be isolated from others, isolated from self, or experience what is called existential isolation. Isolation from others is related to the aloneness one might feel if there is no one to relate to. Such isolation can be self-imposed (e.g., a monk taking a vow of silence), or other-imposed, such as when a person in a position of authority mandates isolation (e.g., a parent sending a child to his or her room).
Angst
Frankl/ Existential: Another way of saying: Existential Anxiety
Death/non-death
Frankl/ Existential: Fear of death, death avoidance
Choice
Frankl/ Existential: Everyone has the ability to make the right or wrong __________.
Phenomenology
Frankl/ Existential: to gain a deep understanding of the client's subjective experience of the world, the therapist will listen intensely, use empathy to ensure deep understanding of the client, and ask questions that inquire about the client's perspective without judging the client.
A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live
Freedom
Frankl/ Existential: Realizing that we alone are responsible for our lives, the client can now begin to make conscious choices that free the client from his or her self-imposed neurotic constraints. The client now realizes that, from moment to moment, he or she is metaphorically choosing to live free (with all the inherent struggles of living) or die, and makes appropriate decisions based on this realization
Responsibility
Frankl/ Existential: Acceptance of the importance of an examined life brings with it the recognition that, from moment to moment, the client chooses his or her attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors. The client now realizes that neurotic behaviors are self-imposed and that he or she is solely ______________ for bringing meaning, dignity, love, and joy to his or her life
Holism
Perls/ Gestalt:
a concept that considers the whole person; the whole person has physical, social, psychological, and spiritual parts that are woven together and cannot be separated
Empty chair
Perls/ Gestalt: To emphasize such splits, a client can dialogue with and _________ _________ and have a conversation with the two parts of self. Often, the individual takes turn being each part, and actually switches chairs as he or she speaks to the other part of self in the opposing ______ _________. Of course, it is important to pay particular attention to the nondominant side of self, as this side is often in hiding and has difficulty expressing itself. This technique is often employed when exploring topdog/underdog splits.
Foreground
Perls/ Gestalt: when a need emerges, that need takes precedence over other needs, and moves into the _____________. As a need in the ______________ becomes satisfied, it will move into the background and a new need will emerge.
Making the rounds
Perls/ Gestalt: client is asked to make a statement to every group member based on a theme on which he or she has been working.
Here and now
Perls/ Gestalt:Thus, his childhood experiences were likely a primary force driving the part of his theory that encouraged experiencing the "______ _____ ______" and discouraged long, analytical examinations of the past. clients are encouraged to live in the present moment
Topdog/ Underdog
Perls/ Gestalt: part of self splits off and tries to
take charge of other parts of the self.
The ____________ is the part of self that is bossy and the "master," while the ___________ is passive, slavelike, and inept
Shouldisms
Perls/ Gestalt:related to the moralistic superego, and would later become an important part of the topdog theory
Impasses
Perls/ Gestalt:
In Gestalt Theory, the place where people get stuck.
Polarities
Perls/ Gestalt: believed that dimensions of self come in pairs and that we have an infinite number of dimensions (i.e Topdog/underdog)
Unfinished business
Perls: In Gestalt therapy, situation that are unresolved and are forced into the client's background that continue to influence his/her present behavior are (i.e things that are not yet taken care of)
Closure
Perls/ Gestalt: need for completion, or the desire to find wholeness, was inherent in other aspects of our being. Thus, whenever we have blockages that result in unfinished business and neurotic symptoms that prevent us from experiencing ourselves fully, the individual to gain wholeness again (need for a complete end)
'I-thou"
Gestalt Adopts Buber's theory. The self is always a self with other. Therapist puts themselves in the experience of the patient, is transparent, authentic, congruent and doesn't try to control the outcome.
Being confrontational
Perls/ Gestalt: _______________ is used when the therapist tells the client that he or she is preventing self from experiencing, being manipulative, or acting like a phony in someway. Perls was particularly adept at this, as he would often tenaciously challenge clients by telling them they were hiding, acting like babies, being phony, and not being real
Responsibility
Perls/ Gestalt: Taking thoughts for thoughts, feelings, actions.
Since clients are often particularly adept at not taking responsibility for their actions, Gestalt therapists will often ask their clients to add a simple statement like "and I take ___________________ for that."
Feeding the client sentences
Perls/ Gestalt: As clients work on core issues, their unfinished business is sometimes obvious to the therapist, but not to the client,. Based on the therapist's educated "hunch," he or she will create a sentence that seems to highlight a core issue and ask the client to repeat it.
Layers
Perls/ Gestalt: (1) the cliché layer, (2) the role-playing or phony layer, (3) the impasse layer, (4) the implosive layer, and (5) the explosive/authentic layer
"I have a secret"
Perls/ Gestalt: Most people have a part of themselves that they feel guilty about or ashamed of. In an effort to take ownership of these feelings, a therapist will sometimes ask a client to make a statement about how the client thinks the therapist might respond if the secret was revealed.
Allows the client to integrate it into their life
Congruence
Rogers/ Person-Centered:(core condition) Genuineness consistency between one's ideal self and actual self that results in a positive self concept.
Incongruence
Rogers/ Person-Centered: produces anxiety
Rogers referred to the difference between the real and ideal perceptions of the self as what?
Empathy
Rogers/ Person-Centered: (a core condition)
Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives
Sensitivity to another's feelings as if they were one's own
Unconditional Postive Regard
Rogers/ Person-Centered: (core condition): to feel loved, supported, and appreciated by those close to them.
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Actualizing
Rogers/ Person-Centered: According to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming.
Every individual is born with an ______________ tendency that motivates him or her to reach full potential if the individual is placed in an environment that supports this inherent process.
Free will
Rogers/ Person-Centered: people are free to make choices in their lives based on their subjective view of reality.
Organismic valuing process
Rogers/ Person-Centered:assesses whether a person should move toward or away from experiences based on whether those experiences match the individual's unique qualities.
The inner sense in a person that guides them in the direction of health and growth lets you know if life experiences are in accordance with your actualizing tendency. Gut feeling, seek to move toward them, move away from interferences, and if all is well trust your gut often. Don't trust your gut because of life experiences
Self-determination
Rogers/ Person- Centered:
The ability of an ethnic-group to decide how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as part of another country.
Self-concept
Rogers/ Person-Centered: How people actually see themselves

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Conditions of Worth
Rogers/ Person-Centered: expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior that determine how we see ourselves
Operant conditioning
Skinner/ Behavior Therapy:
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
occurs when a behavior increases or decreases due to the consequences
that occur after the emission of the behavior
Classical conditioning
Skinner/ Behavior: (Pavlov)
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
associative learning, is when an unconditioned stimulus becomes repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus; eventually,the neutral stimulus evokes the same kind of response as does the unconditioned stimulus. The neutral stimulus has now become a conditioned stimulus and now yields a conditioned response
Behavioral Concepts
Skinner/ Behavioral:
Negative and Postivie Reinforcement
Skinner/ Behavioral:
Negative Reinforcement: Any stimulus (usually considered negative or aversive) that, when removed, increases the likelihood of a response. For instance, a child exhibits appropriate manners during a meal, and the child does not have to perform his or her usual task of cleaning
Positive Reinforcement: Any stimulus (usually considered favorable) that, when presented, increases the likelihood of a response. For instance, a child says "please," and a sticker is placed on her sticker chart
Social Learning/ Modeling
Skinner/ Behavioral: when a behavior is viewed
and then repeated at a later time. Usually, the behavior has some intrinsic value and thus there is reason for the individual to maintain some mental image or model of the behavior so that it can be used later.
Baby in a box/ baby tender
Skinner/ Behavior: "Skinner box" (the name sometimes given to describe the box Skinner used when studying rats, pigeons, and other animals). The myth even went further: "She went psychotic" or "she committed suicide" because of "the box." This myth was to haunt Skinner for the rest of his life, as people would come up to him and ask how his poor daughterwas doing. In reality, his daughter was doing great, was not brought up in a box, and today, Deborah Skinner Buzan is married and a successful artist in London. In fact, ask either of Skinner's daughters today, and they will describe a warm, caring father who was very much present in their lives.
Deterministic
Skinner/ Behavior: the behaviorist looks at how the environment impinges on the organism and determines (causes) specific behaviors (effects). In fact, Skinner did not believe we have free choice, because we are destined to act in certain ways based on our environmental histories
In "characteristics of Social Science" what is defined as follows: "scientists assume that events happen for reasons. Things do not "just happen"
Tabula Rasa
Skinner/ Behavior: Blank Slate
Shaping or Successive Approximation
Skinner/ Behavior:As behaviors become shaped, they become less random. Parents can shape their children's behaviors deliberately or, as
most parents do, behaviors can be shaped accidentally or inadvertently.
Rewarding approximations of desired behaviors
systematically reinforcing certain behaviors in order to reach a specified end goal behavior
Extinction
Skinner/ Behavior: the cessation of a behavior because it is not reinforced
Acceptance
Skinner/ Behavior: the therapist's ______________ of the client, and teaching the client how to a___________ himself or herself. Clients who feel un___________ are unlikely to reveal hidden or shameful parts of themselves
Token Economy
Skinner/ Behavior: a token is given to an individual when an identified appropriate behavior is exhibited. After a certain number of tokens have been collected, and/or a specified amount of time has been passed, the individual can exchange the tokens for a reward.
Response Cost
Skinner/ Behavior: A punishment technique;
The contingent loss of reinforcers (e.g. a fine), producing a decrease of the frequency of behavior; a form of negative punishment
Flooding
Skinner/ Behavioral: the client either imagines being in the presence of the stimuli or actually places himself or herself "in vivo" with the stimuli (e.g., riding elevators in the Empire State Building, without desensitization, for those who
have an elevator phobia!)
Aversion Therapy
Skinner/ Behavioral: to associate, on multiple occasions, a stimulus that is perceived to be highly noxious by the client with a behavior to be changed
treatment that uses punishment to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors
Stimulus Control
Skinner/ Behavior:
What operant conditioning therapy or modification is described as : Having a stimulus take over the control of the behavior (unintentionally)?
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