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When phospholipid molecules are placed into water, microspheres form spontaneously. These micorspheres are called:


Early cyanobacteria evolved a form of photosynthesis that permanetly changed the earth's atmosphere by releasing which of the following gases?


An experimental test of the hypothesis to explain the origin of the first organic compounds on earth might include all of the following steps except:

inoculate with a few bacteria to get the process started

all living organisms possess:

cellular organization, growth, metabolism, reproduction, heredity

Coacervates have all of the following except

Have: 2 layer outer boundary, can divide, and are able to grow

It has been recently been discovered that enzyme-like catalysis can be carried out not only by enzymes buy also by:


Of the following primitive Earth conditions and chemical reactions, which one do biochemists know was important to the formation of amino acids and subsequent formation of complex carbon molecules that are common to life?

There had to be a reducing atmosphere rather than one with oxygen otherwise formation of those molecules would have been extremely difficult

Eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and chloroplasts by:


which of the following cannot be included in the main categories of archaebacteria?

It can be: methenogens, halophiles, and thermophiles

Lacking one of the criteria to be strictly classified as living units and containing fragments of eukaryotic genomes, the viruses are included in:

none of the kingdoms

Pinus in the scientific name pinus ponderosa is the


If two organisms are in the same phylum and the same family, then they also belong to the same

kingdom, order, class

Most viruses form a capsid around their nucleic acid core. This capsid is composed of


The genetic alteration of a cell's genome by the introduction of foreign DNA is called


Recently a class of infectious proteins with no associated nucleic acid, have been identified. They are referred to as


All of the following are diseases caused by viruses except:

Strep throat

The first virus to be crystallized was

Tobacco mosaic virus

The viral replication cycle that causes the host cell to burst open releasing newly assembled viruses is the __________cycle


The type of replication cycle where viruses become established as stable parts of the host cell genome is the _________cycle


The infection cycle of HIV includes all of the following steps except:

immediate killing of the host cell

HIV studies revealed that it is closely related to

a chimpanzee virus

The onset of AIDS is often accompanied by:

a steep drop in T cell numbers

Which of the following is not a form of HIV treatment

treatments: AZT , Protease inhibitors and CAF and chemokines

an example of an emerging virus (a virus in a new host) with a lethality rate in excess of 50% is

Ebola Virus

All of the following are true of viroids excepts

they are tiny naked molecules DNA and proteins

Certain bacteria are the only organisms that are capable of fixing atmospheric


Bacteria undergo a process that produces cells that are identical. This process is called

binary fission

Which of the following is not true about bacteria

they do not contain organelles

which of the following is not a shape seen in bacteria?

whip shaped bacteria and icosahedrals

certain bacteria can withstand drying and hotter temperatures because of their ability to form


archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in which of the following

cell wall, plasma membrane, gene translation machinery, and gene architecture

Some bacteria attach to other substrates by hair like outgrowths, which are shorter than flagella. these are called


bacteria cause all of the following human diseases except

flue, malaria, AIDS, the cold

the most diverse of the four eukaryotic kingdoms is the

protista kingdom

amoebas move from place to place by means of their


The marine multicellular protists belonging to the larger brown algae that are responsible for most of the food production through photosynthesis in regions where they occur are called


organisms that are characterized by being unicellular, photosynthetic, and having double shells made of silica are known as


Zoomastigotes aid termites and other wood eating insects because they possess cellulose digesting enzymes. These zoomastigotes live in the

intestines of termites

protists are classified into a single kingdom because of which of the following features

eukaryotes that dont have organs

individual organisms move through the soil or other substrate to ingest bacteria, etc., till a certain ultimately becomes encysted into spores. these organisms are

cellular slime molds

dinoflagellates in the form of zooxanthellae are symbiotic with


the malarial parasite, plasmodium is a member of the phylum


Which of the following common names is mismatched with its phyla

Dinoflagellates- Pyrrhophyta
Euglenoids- Euglenophyta
Diatoms- Chrysophyta
Golden algae- Chrysophyta
Red- Rhodophyta
Brown- Phaeophyta
Green- Chlorophyta
these are all matched correctly

a mass of hyphae is commonly referred to as


the cell walls of fungi are made up of polysaccharides and


mycorrhizal associations replace and perform the same functions as

root hairs

lichens are mutualisms between

fungi and various groups of algae

of the following statements about the fungal phylum Zygomycota, which is incorrect?

correct: sexual reproduction by fusion of gametangia,
example is bread mold,
produce sporangiophores (asexually)

Of the following statements about the fungal Phylum Ascomycota, which is incorrect

correct: yeast are unicellular members,
make reproductive structure ascus,
mold, morels, chestnut blights

of the following statements related to the fungal phylum Basidiomycota which one is incorrect

correct: mushrooms and toadstools
basidia are located on gills
reproduce secually
wrong: most described/classified species of all the fungus basidiamycotes

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