50 terms

Unit 8 Biology Review

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When phospholipid molecules are placed into water, microspheres form spontaneously. These micorspheres are called:
Coacervates
Early cyanobacteria evolved a form of photosynthesis that permanetly changed the earth's atmosphere by releasing which of the following gases?
oxygen
An experimental test of the hypothesis to explain the origin of the first organic compounds on earth might include all of the following steps except:
inoculate with a few bacteria to get the process started
all living organisms possess:
cellular organization, growth, metabolism, reproduction, heredity
Coacervates have all of the following except
Have: 2 layer outer boundary, can divide, and are able to grow
It has been recently been discovered that enzyme-like catalysis can be carried out not only by enzymes buy also by:
RNA
Of the following primitive Earth conditions and chemical reactions, which one do biochemists know was important to the formation of amino acids and subsequent formation of complex carbon molecules that are common to life?
There had to be a reducing atmosphere rather than one with oxygen otherwise formation of those molecules would have been extremely difficult
Eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and chloroplasts by:
endosymbiosis
which of the following cannot be included in the main categories of archaebacteria?
It can be: methenogens, halophiles, and thermophiles
Lacking one of the criteria to be strictly classified as living units and containing fragments of eukaryotic genomes, the viruses are included in:
none of the kingdoms
Pinus in the scientific name pinus ponderosa is the
genus
If two organisms are in the same phylum and the same family, then they also belong to the same
kingdom, order, class
Most viruses form a capsid around their nucleic acid core. This capsid is composed of
protein
The genetic alteration of a cell's genome by the introduction of foreign DNA is called
transformation
Recently a class of infectious proteins with no associated nucleic acid, have been identified. They are referred to as
prions
All of the following are diseases caused by viruses except:
Strep throat
The first virus to be crystallized was
Tobacco mosaic virus
The viral replication cycle that causes the host cell to burst open releasing newly assembled viruses is the __________cycle
lytic
The type of replication cycle where viruses become established as stable parts of the host cell genome is the _________cycle
Lysogenic
The infection cycle of HIV includes all of the following steps except:
immediate killing of the host cell
HIV studies revealed that it is closely related to
a chimpanzee virus
The onset of AIDS is often accompanied by:
a steep drop in T cell numbers
Which of the following is not a form of HIV treatment
treatments: AZT , Protease inhibitors and CAF and chemokines
an example of an emerging virus (a virus in a new host) with a lethality rate in excess of 50% is
Ebola Virus
All of the following are true of viroids excepts
they are tiny naked molecules DNA and proteins
Certain bacteria are the only organisms that are capable of fixing atmospheric
nitrogen
Bacteria undergo a process that produces cells that are identical. This process is called
binary fission
Which of the following is not true about bacteria
they do not contain organelles
which of the following is not a shape seen in bacteria?
whip shaped bacteria and icosahedrals
certain bacteria can withstand drying and hotter temperatures because of their ability to form
endospores
archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in which of the following
cell wall, plasma membrane, gene translation machinery, and gene architecture
Some bacteria attach to other substrates by hair like outgrowths, which are shorter than flagella. these are called
pili
bacteria cause all of the following human diseases except
flue, malaria, AIDS, the cold
the most diverse of the four eukaryotic kingdoms is the
protista kingdom
amoebas move from place to place by means of their
psuedopod
The marine multicellular protists belonging to the larger brown algae that are responsible for most of the food production through photosynthesis in regions where they occur are called
kelp
organisms that are characterized by being unicellular, photosynthetic, and having double shells made of silica are known as
Diatoms
Zoomastigotes aid termites and other wood eating insects because they possess cellulose digesting enzymes. These zoomastigotes live in the
intestines of termites
protists are classified into a single kingdom because of which of the following features
eukaryotes that dont have organs
individual organisms move through the soil or other substrate to ingest bacteria, etc., till a certain ultimately becomes encysted into spores. these organisms are
cellular slime molds
dinoflagellates in the form of zooxanthellae are symbiotic with
coral
the malarial parasite, plasmodium is a member of the phylum
apicomplexa
Which of the following common names is mismatched with its phyla
Dinoflagellates- Pyrrhophyta
Euglenoids- Euglenophyta
Diatoms- Chrysophyta
Golden algae- Chrysophyta
Red- Rhodophyta
Brown- Phaeophyta
Green- Chlorophyta
these are all matched correctly
a mass of hyphae is commonly referred to as
mycclium
the cell walls of fungi are made up of polysaccharides and
chitin
mycorrhizal associations replace and perform the same functions as
root hairs
lichens are mutualisms between
fungi and various groups of algae
of the following statements about the fungal phylum Zygomycota, which is incorrect?
correct: sexual reproduction by fusion of gametangia,
example is bread mold,
produce sporangiophores (asexually)
Of the following statements about the fungal Phylum Ascomycota, which is incorrect
correct: yeast are unicellular members,
make reproductive structure ascus,
mold, morels, chestnut blights
of the following statements related to the fungal phylum Basidiomycota which one is incorrect
correct: mushrooms and toadstools
basidia are located on gills
reproduce secually
wrong: most described/classified species of all the fungus basidiamycotes