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Anatomy and physiology
Terms in this set (138)
The term osseous tissue refers to
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect
An elevated level of osteoblasts activiy
Hemopoiesis typically occurs in
The red bone marrow
The most serious effect of severe hypocalcemia is likely to be
Laryngospasm and suffocation
Calcium homeostasis in adults is maintained mainly by
Osteoblasts deposit more bone matrix in response to all of the following factors except
A farmers finger is pulled completely off his hand by a piece of farm machinery. This is
All of the following components of the bone matrix are organic except for
Most bones develop from
The cells primarily responsible for the breakdown of bone are
The protein fibers of the bone matrix are composed of
Appositional growth of a long bone has the effect of
Increasing the diameter of the bone
Bones found in the forearm are
Osteocytes in the outer lamellae of an osteoblasts transport their wastes to the bloodstream for removal via
The --- forms by endochondral ossification
Formation of --- is a stage in intramembranous issification
In the development of the skeleton, what typically occurs around the ages of 18 to 21?
The epiphyseal plates close
When bone is being resorbed, acid phosphate dissolves its
Hypocalcemia can result in any of the following except
Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone
One thing calcitrol does that parathyroid hormone does not is
Stimulate the small intestine to absorb more phosphate
A soft callus forms during
The healing of a fracture
The skeletal system performs all of the following functions except
Regulation of body temperature
Hydroxyapatite is best described as
Calcium phosphate crystals in the bone matrix
A canniculus of compact bone contains
A process of an osteocyte
Based on the shape, parietal bones are classified as
Bones that serve as levers and are moved by skeletal muscles to produce movement are termed
The cavity in the diaphysis if long bones is called the --- cavity and commonly contains --- marrow
The periosteum is a connective tissue sheath which lines the _____ of bones and fuses with bones by way of ______ fibers
outer surface, perforating
Fat is stored in the
medullary cavity of long bones
Which one of the bone cells is most closely related to white blood cells?
Hydroxapatite refers to the crystal of bone which is made up primarily of
Which one of the following is found in compact bone but not in spongy bone?
Not all compact bone is organized around a central canal with concentric lamellae. Lamellae found in the inner and outer boundaries of dense bone run parallel to the bone surface. These lamellae are called
Bones of the skull and clavicle develop by
As bone grows in the child only two areas of cartilage are left at each epiphysis. These two areas are
articular catilage and epiphyseal plate
At the epiphyseal plate, in the zone of calcification:
minerals are deposited between lacunae, chondrocytes die, and a calcified matrix is left.
In the zone of bone deposition, _____ cells rapidly invade the calcified matrix and lay down bone. Then _______ cells erode the spongy bone to form the marrow cavity.
The growth of the epiphyseal plate which adds to the length of bone is called ____ growth.
In order for mineralization to begin, two steps must occur. These steps are
the solubility product must be reached and the inhibitors are neutralized
If the pH of blood drops below 7.35, your body is said to be in a state of acidosis. To counteract this acidosis, you would expect your kidneys to excrete more hydrogen ions, your breathing rate to increase to blow off more carbon dioxide, and your bone to
increase the activity of osteoclasts
An individual has the following symptoms: increased excitability of the nervous system and increased muscle spasms particuarly in the hands and feet. This individual most likely is suffering from
Parathyroid hormone helps to convert
calcidiol to calcitriol
Osteoclasts are stimulated, calcium is reabsorbed by the kidneys, calcitrol is formed and osteoblasts are inhibited from forming collagen. The best explanation for these activities is
low blood calcium and increased production of PTH
The use of anabolic steroids by adolescent boys will
decrease the growth of bone by prematurely closing the epiphyseal plate
A fracture of the distal end of the radius and ulna is called a
A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a
A loss of bone mass, especially spongy bone, is usually a result of lack of exercise or deficiency of estrogen after menopause. This disorder is called
Nodding your head "yes" represents movement of which type of joint?
All the following are paranasal sinuses except
The internal and external acoustic meatuses are openings in
the temporal bone
The sphenoid bone has all of the following features except
an infraorbital foramen
Which of the following skull bones are paired?
The lambdoid suture separates the parietal bones from
the occipital bone
The styloid process, mastoid process, and zygomatic process are parts of
the temporal bone
The _____ bone of the skull articulates with the vertebral column
All of the following are facial bones except ______, which is a cranial bone
The fetal skull has all of the following fontanels except for a/an ________ fontanel
the ethmoid bone
There are _____ thoracic vertebrae and pairs of ribs
The axis is the only vertebrae with
Which of these bones is in the antebrachium?
The glenoid cavity is a point of articulation between
The scapula and humerus
The cranial bones have a middle layer of spongy bone called
Which part of the mandible articulates with the cranium?
The condyloid process
The ____ of a vertebra bears the most weight
Costal facets are found only on
Two bones have auricular surfaces, namely
the sacrum and ox coxae
Each clavicle articulates with
the manubrim and scapula
A costal cartilage connects each ____ to the _____
The _____ is fractured more often than any other bone
Strictly speaking, "arm" refers only to
A styloid process is found on all of the following except
Which of the following is not found in the skull?
A rounded knob that articulates with another bone is called a
A shallow, broad, or elongated basin in bone is called a(n)
A small, rounded process is called a _____ while a massive process is called a(n)
Which one of the sinuses listed below does not communicate with the nasal cavity?
The suture that separates the two parietal bones is called the _____ suture.
The smooth area of the frontal bone just above the nasal bones is called the
The suture that separates the parietal bone from the occipital bone is the _____ suture, while the suture between the parietal and temporal bones is the _____ suture.
The large, irregular opening just medial to the styloid process of the temporal bone is the
Which one of the foramens listed below is not found in the sphenoid?
Which one of the features listed below is not found in the ethmoid bone?
inferior nasal conchae
This bone, which resembles the blade of a plow, forms the inferior part of the nasal septum and is called the
The mandibular condyles articulate with the
mandibular fossae of the temporal bone
An abnormal lateral spinal curvature, which is more common in adolescent girls, is called
The region of the vertebral column which has the most number of fused or unfused vertebrae is the
This vertebra has the following characteristics: body, vertebral foramen, spinous process, transverse process, and transverse foramen. This vertebra is a
In a herniated, ruptured, or slipped disc this area of fibrocartilage called the ______ cracks and the ______ oozes out and may put painful pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerve.
annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus
The head of most ribs articulates with the body of the thoracic vertebra at the
superior and inferior costal facets
Ribs 8 through 10 attatch to costal cartilage of rib 7. Ribs 8 through 10 are called
the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the _____ while the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the ______.
The "funny bone" refers to the
How many phalanges are in each hand or foot?
The tibia is one of the major weight-bearing bones of the leg and articulates inferiorly with this weight-bearing bone called the
Unlike other joints, a _____ does not join two bones to each other
Which movement is limited to the foot?
Which of these is a first class lever?
the atlanto-occipital joint
Which of these bursae is not associated with the shoulder joint?
Which of these is a gliding joint?
any interphalangeal joint
The humerus is held in the glenoid cavity more securely by the ____ than by any other structure
biceps brachii tendon
If two bones are joined so firmly together they cannot move, they form
The hyaline costal cartilage that attaches a rib to the sternum forms
The cartilage pad called a meniscus is found within the knee and _____ joints.
Which of the following joints is multiaxial?
the coxal joint
To raise your hand and place it on the shoulder of a person standing in front of you involves _____ of the shoulder
To be sitting on a sofa and raise your arm to rest it on the back of the sofa involves ______ at the shoulder joint
If you stand on tiptoes to reach something on a high shelf, you are performing _____ at the ankle joint
A fibrous joint cannot also be
Suppose you cup your hands to hold some water. This action would most likely involve
adduction of the fingers
A metacarpophalangeal joint is
a condyloid joint
A certain lever has a fulcrum at one end, has a tendon exerting an effort of 5 cm distal to the fulcrum, and acts against a resistance another 6 cm distal to the effort. What is the mechanical advantage of this lever?
Which of the following is true of joints that are first-class levers?
Their mechanical advantage may be either greater or less than 1.0
Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments restrict side-to-side movements of the ______ joint.
The patella and femur form a ______ joint.
A tendon sheath is a modified
A torn tendon or ligament is the cause of
A joint, such as the knee or elbow, which is freely moveable is termed
A structurally classified joint which has no synovial cavity and is held together by ligaments is termed
The functional and structural classifications that best describe the tibiofibular joint are:
amphiarthroses, fibrous joint
The suture between the temporal bone and parietal bone and between the temporal bone and sphenoid bone is called
The joint between the ribs and costal cartilage is a ______ joint which is specifically called a ______.
The pubic symphysis is made up of
Synovial fluid is rich in _____ and _____, which give it a viscous, slippery texture similar to egg white before it is heated into a white gel.
The articular cartilage found in a synovial joint is
The meniscus is composed of
The elbow is an example of what type of joint?
If you are moving your head from side to side to say "no", you are using this type of joint
Which one of the following joints does not fit with the others?
proximal radioulnar joint between head of the radius and radial notch of the ulna
Which one of the following is the weakest joint?
The movement in which one of end of the appendage remains relatively stationary while the other end makes a circular motion is
The movement of the foot where the soles are turned medially is
Which lever type is the most common in the human body?
The coxal, or hip joint, contains a ring of fibrocartilage called the
The achilles heel is the
The crunching or crackling sounds in aging joints are caused by
roughened cartilage moving
What type of joint is the epiphyseal plate?
Which of the following joints allows for the most movement?
The joint between a tooth and an alveolar socket is called
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