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US History Parts 1-4
Terms in this set (64)
ulysses s grant
18th president who was a civil war general but had no political experience, won by "waving the bloody shirt" or reliving his war victories, slogan was "let there be peace",
james a garfield
20th president, general in the civil war, skilled mathmetician and he proved the pythagorean theorem
notorious crooked and corrupt railroad millionaire who concocted the plot to corner the gold market which made "black friday"
notorious crooked and corrupt railroad millionaire who concocted a plot to corner the gold market and led to "black friday"
the infamous Tweed Ring was a democratic political machine in nyc, headed by william "boss" tweed.
william tweed, a member of the house of rep. he employed bribery, graft, patronage, violence, and fake elections to cheat the city of as much as 200 million.
samuel j tilden
new york governor gained fame by leading the prosecution of tweed, and he would later use this fame to become the democrat nominee in the presidential election of 1876
harper's weekly political cartoonist, exposed tweed and tammany hall's corruption in cartoons
a railroad construction company that made shovels , paid itself huge sums of money for small railroad construction, 94 million was paid for 44 million dollars worth of work
in 1875, the public learned that this had robbed the treasury of millions of dollars in appropriated tax money on liquor
secretary of war who was the only us cabinet member to have been impeached unanimously for illegal graft.
head of the Liberal Republican Party, defeated by Grant, created the New York Tribune, called for joining of the north and south and end to reconstruction.
panic of 1873
black friday led to this, the collapsing of foreign markets, too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear, and the over-loaning by banks to those projects
failure of his new york banking firm, he was a financier of the civil war
jim crow laws
african americans in the south were denied full rights of american citizenship
the gilded age
was a novel co-authored by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner, the term meant that times looked good on the surface but if it was scratched it was cheap and tarnished. a perfect metaphor for the time. filled with corruption.
scottish immigrant was a rags to riches story in the pittsburgh steel industry, used the bessemer process and became one of the wealtihest men in the world making 25 million a year, used vertical integration
co authored "The Gilded Age"
rutherford b hayes
was the 19th President of the United States. Became President at the end of the Reconstruction Era of the United States through a complex Compromise of 1877. He promoted civil service reform and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction.
compromise of 1877
abandoned African Americans in the south by withdrawing troops, and so begins the passage of widespread Jim Crow laws at the local and state level.
plessey v ferguson
tried the Jim Crow Laws "seperate but equal" segregation was legalized
founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) consisted of an association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its independence
chinese exclusion act
passed in 1882, was passed barring any chinese from entering the US
interstate commerce commission (icc)
an early attempt to regulate the railroads. ultimately cost cleveland in his bid for reelection.
chester a arthur
21st potus, vp to james a garfield, created the Pendleton act, and helped revitalize the us navy
charles j guiteau
a disgruntle office seeker who shot garfield in the back, after being captured he used an early version of the insanity defense to avoid conviction, hung anywhere
pendleton act of 1883
the magna carta of civil service reform, awarded gov jobs based on ability/merit, not patronage. law prohibited financial assessments on jobholders and established a merit system of making appointments to offic one the bases of aptitude rather than "pull"
haymarket square riot
May 4, 1886, McCormick Reaper Factory workers were on strike and protested were fairly calm until a dynamite bomb was thrown and killed/injured several dozen people. forecer associated the Knights of Labor with anarchists and lowered their popularity and effectiveness
the idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of these principles is Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776).
1892, a carnegie steel mill strike began on june 30, 1892, battle bewtween strikers and pinkertons.
23rd potus, grandson of william henry harrison, served as a general during the civil war for the union. defeated cleveland in the election of 1888, mckinley tariff, sherman antitrust act, billion dollar congress
j pierpont morgan
a financial robber baron who helped grover cleveland bail the country out of the panic. margan refused at first bc US lacked collateral, agreed and allowed him to obtain millions in gov bonds. bought carnegies entire business and vanderbuilt railroad
william jennings bryan
advocating for "free silver" and gaining support for his beliefs, ran as the democratic candidate in 1896 of the "cross of gold" platform
emerged in 1892 from disgruntled farmers in the mid west known as grangers, joined forces with former members of the knights of labor, main call for labor rights, limits on big businesses, inflation via free coinage of silver
promontory point, utah
in 1869 the transcontinental rail line was completed here, near Ogden Utah
pullman town strike
conflict began in the town of pullman, illinois when 3,000 employees of the pullan palace car company began a strike without union authority in response to reductions in wages by 35%
james j hill
created the Great Northern railroad that ran from Duluth, MN to seattle, WA
an English inventor/bullet maker, created a new and cheap way to produce steel.
a massacre where more than 200 Indians were killed for performing the outlawed Ghost Dance in a ceremony, marked the end of the Indian Wars
james h dooley
controlled much of the southern railroads running from richmond through virginia
a tycoon that built the Pullman Palace Cars
populist party was formed by farmers to combat such corruption and many state efforts to stop the railroad monopoly occured, the wabash case strengthened the railroad and crippled these people
knights of labor
created in 1869 and continued secretly untill 1881. led by uriah s stephens and later had female leadership with mary harris jones
american railway union
nations first industry-wide union was led by eugene v debs
munn v illinois
state determined grain elevator prices, the wabash case reversed this
"wizard of menlo park" was the most versatile inventor who, while best known for his electric light bulb, also cranked out scores of other inventions
alexander graham bell
1876 invented the telephone and a new age was launched
created a glider that could be propelled through the air by an engine, flew the first official airplane in Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903 -> airplanes in WWI, etc.
john d rockefeller
became the pioneer of both horizontal and vertical integration, organized the Standard Oil Company of ohio, crushed weaker competitors,
"gospel of wealth"
written by Andrew Carnegie compared capitalism with darwinism
sherman anti-trust act
a very mild anti monopoly/trust busting act established for fair competition in domestic markets, forbade combinations in restraint of trade
james buchanan duke
developed a huge cigarette industry in the form of the American Tobacco Company and made many donation to what is now Duke University
june 25-26 1876, aka Custer's last stand, was the turning point in the western indian wars. the sioux refused to give up land, so custer raided them. all of custer's detachment were killed
offered 160 acres of free land, settlers only had to pay a small fee (10$) and improve the land, meaning build a small cabin on it and cultivate it, many people headed west
dawes severity act
overall goal was to erase tribes and set the Indians on the road to becoming "white"
led the Apache tribe and was chased into Mexico, eventually cuaght, jailed, and later released.
george armstrong custer
led a "geological" expedition into the Black Hills, South Dakota, where gold was discovered on Sioux reservation, led an attack on Little Bighorn, all troops and himself was killed
one of american's earliest tycoons who controlled much of the american railroad in collaboration with gould and fisk, built his fortune in the steamboat trade during war of 1812 and became a railroad man in the mid 1800's
graduate of the Carlisle School, one of the best all around athletes in history. professional football, basebal, basketball, won olympic gold medals
opened in the late 1800's and they exemplified the ambitions of the Dawes Act, goal was to americanize indian children "kill the indian, save the child"
immigrants from europe entered america through this in the new york harbor. their first view of american often was the statue of liberty
american federation of labor
samuel gompers founded this.
Eugene v Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
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