NTD309 - Chapter 6
Terms in this set (68)
breastfeeding is the best form of food for a child for at least _______
what components of breastmilk are not affected by the maternal diet?
protein, carbohydrate, fat, mineral composition
what components of breast milk are affected by the maternal diet?
fatty acid profile, some vitamins, some trace minerals
the mammary gland is the
source of milk for offspring
rounded or oblong shaped cavity present in breast
cells in acinus (milk gland) that are responsible for secreting milk components into ducts
line the alveoli & can contract to cause milk to be secreted into ducts
hormone produced during letdown that causes milk to eject into ducts
larger ducts for storage of milk behind the nipple
rounded structures of mammary glands
term for human milk production
alveoli synthesize milk from ________ in the ______
raw material, bloodstream
more watery to quench thirst immediately
when should the first breast feeding session take place, ideally?
within 1 hour of birth
(birth to 2-5 days) milk formation begins
(begins 2-5 days after birth) increased blood flow to breast; milk "comes in"
(begins at ~10 day after birth) milk composition is stable/fully mature
what are the two hormones responsible for lactation control?
prolactin and oxytocin
what does prolactin do?
stimulates milk production
when is prolactin triggered?
in response to suckling, stress, sleep, & sexual intercourse
what does oxytocin do?
stimulates letdown, causes uterus to contract, seal blood vessels, and shrink in size
how human milk is produced: suckling of an infant stimulates the
how human milk is produced: the hypothalamus initiates
the release of prolactin and oxytocin from pituitary gland
how human milk is produced: prolactin stimulates
how human milk is produced: oxytocin initiates
the release of milk from storage
how human milk is produced: what can inhibit oxytocin?
nervous tension, lack of confidence, fatigue
why don't women lactate during pregnancy?
even though prolactin levels are high enough, the placenta releases estrogen to suppress it
breast milk: levels of calcium
low, but highly absorbable
The first milk secreted during the first few days postpartum
what is colostrum very high in?
proteins like secretory IgA and lactoferrin
what color is colostrum and why?
what does colostrum help facilitate?
the first stool
breast milk is _____
having the same salt concentration as human blood, so it doesn't dehydrate or overhydrate
how many calories per mL are in breast milk?
lipids provide _____ the calories in human milk
how long should a woman breast feed each time she sits down to nurse?
15 min./breast, 30 min. total
what should a woman do while breastfeeding?
drink 8oz. water
hindmilk is very rich in _______
fat and calories
DHA in milk is essential for
intelligence and retinal development
cholesterol in milk is essential for
vitamin D synthesis
what component(s) of breast milk facilitates calcium absorption?
the main protein in human milk
what is the dominant carb in breast milk?
medium chain CHOs that prevent binding of pathogenic microorganisms to gut, which prevents infection & diarrhea
how many women use WIC?
1 in 5
a supplemental food and preventative healthcare program for women who are pregnant or who have children younger than five years old
what are signs of successful breastfeeding?
swallowing sounds, 6-8 wet diapers/day, 1-3 stools/day, alert when awake, return to birthweight within 2 weeks (babies lose weight after birth), gain 1lb/month, feed 8-12 times/day, having weight/health checks
why is it important for a lactating woman to eat a variety of foods and flavors?
an infant who is exposed to a variety of flavors during nursing is more likely to be interested in and accept new flavors later on
benefits of breastfeeding: oxytocin
stimulates the uterus to return to prepregnancy size, equating to a 1-2lb weight loss
benefits of breastfeeding: how it acts as a form of birth control
delays monthly ovulation
benefits of breastfeeding: psychosocial benefits
boosts self confidence and bonding with infant
how long should a woman nurse her child?
exclusively for at least 6 months, partially for at least 1 year
prevents the baby from taking food into lungs
oral search reflex
infant opens mouth wide when close to breast & thrusts tongue forward
infant turns to side when stimulated on that side
what is the DRI for energy needs for lactating women?
+500kal/day for first 6months, +400kcal/day afterward
what is the actual energy needs for lactating women, and why is the DRI different?
675kcal/day, but a small deficit in combination with less exercise can help with fat loss in the mom
the foods linked with colic
cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, & fish
nonstop crying with infrequent breaks
what is the cause of colic?
what is the best thing for a woman to start doing after having a baby, in terms of losing the weight?
go for walks
should breast feeding women be taking supplements?
not if they are well-nourished without them
can smoking/nicotine be transferred to milk?
can alcohol be transferred to milk?
when is the best time for a woman who wants to drink a glass of wine to drink?
immediately after breastfeeding
what are the mercury-containing fish?
swordfish, tile fish, shark, mackerel, *albacore tuna
why do you have to be wary of imported fruit?
not all countries have banned DDT