Compare the nervous
The nervous system uses rapidly propagated electrical "messages," whereas endocrine system "messages" (hormones) are liberated into the blood to travel much more slowly to the target organs.
A chemical substance liberated into the blood, which alters "target cell" metabolism in a specific manner.
Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the ______________ and the _______________.
steroids, and the amino acid-based molecules
What do all hormones have in common?
They are all chemical molecules that have specific target olgans, which they reach via the blood. Like enzymes, they aer effective in minute quantities.
If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don't all tissues respond to all hormones?
The proper "hormone" receptors must be present on the plaslla membrane or within the cells for the tissue cells to respond.
product is frou haploid daughter cells quantitatively and qualitatively different from the mother cell
"consists of two consecutive nuclear divisions, without chromosomal replication occurring before the second division"
Describe the process of synapsis
The homologous chromosomes become closely aligned along their entire length
How does crossover introduce variability in the daughter cells?
"Where crossovers occur, chromosome breakage occurs and parts are exchanged. This results in chromosomes with different parental contributions"
Define homologous chromosomes
"Chromosomes that carry genses for the same traits. (One = paternal chromosome, the other = maternal chromosome)"
Differentiate between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis
Spermatogenesis - formation of hapoid gametes by the male; spermiogenesis - sloughing off excessive spermatid cytoplasm to form a motile functional sperm
The life span of a sperm is very short. What anatomical characteristics might lead you to suspect this even if you didn't know its life span?
No cytoplasm (to speak of) in which to stroe nutrients
"The sequence of events leadign to germ cell formation in the female begins during fetal development. By the tiem th echild is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to : "
How does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to that of the male?
"much smaller, and the toatl number is predetermined"
The female gametes develop in structures called follicles. What is a follicle?
A structure consisting of a capsule of follicle (or granulosa) cells that encloses a developing gamete (oocyte)
How are primary and sesicular follicles anatomically different?
"The primary follicle has one or a small number of layers of follicle cells surrounding the oocyte; the vesicular follicle has a large antrum containing fluid produced by the granulosa cells, and the developing oocyte, surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells is pushed to one side."
What is a corpus luteum?
Glandular ovarian structure that produces progesterone. The ruptured vesicular follicle is convrted to a corpus luteum
The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four _________; the final product of oogenesis is one_________ and three _____________
"spermatids, ovum, polar bodies"
What is the function of the unequal cytoplasmic division seen during oogenesis in the female (the production of an ovum and 3 polar bodies)?
to provide the ovum or functional gamete with adequate nutritional reserves so that it can survive during its journey to the uterus
What do the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis deteriorate?
They lack sustaining cytoplasm with nutrient reserves.
Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: produced by primary follicles in the ovary
FSH (follicle - stimulating hormone
Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: ovulation occurs after its burstlike release
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: exert netatie feedback on the anterior pituitary relative to FSH secretion
Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and estrogen
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: maintains the hormonal production of the corpus luteum in a nonpregnant woman
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Why does the corpus luteum deteriorate toward the end of the ovarian cycle?
Because blood levels of the anterior pituitary hormone LH are extremely low
Hormonal blood levels during the female ovarian and menstrual cycles: "amount of estrogen in the blood during menses (<, >) amount of estrogen in the blood at ovulation"
amount of progesterone in the blood on day 14 (<) amount of progestrone in the blood on day 23"
Hormonal blood levels during the female ovarian and menstrual cycles: amount of progesterone in the blood on day 14 (<, >) the amount of progesterone in the blood on day 23
amount of progesterone in the blood on day 14 < amount of progesterone in the blood on day 23
amount of LH in the blood during menses (<, >) amount of LH in the blood at ovulation
amount of LH in the blood during menses (<) amount of LH in the blood at ovulation
amount of FSH in the blood on day 6 of the cycle (<, >) amount of FSH in the blood on day 20 of the cycle
amount of FSH in the blood on day 6 of the cycle (>) amount of FSH in the blood on day 20 of the cycle
amount of estrogen in the blood on day 10 (<, >) amount of progesterone in the blood on day 10
amount of estrogen in the blood on day 10 (>) amount of progesterone in the blood on day 10
When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikey? Explain why.
Any time but the three-day interval (days 14 - 16) around ovulation. (Twenty-eight day cycle is assumed)
Menstruation: Uterine Events / Ovarian Events
Menstruation : Uterine Events - Days 1-5. Endometruium is sloughing off. Ovarian Events - Primary follicle begins to grow.
Proliferative: Uterine Events / Ovarian Events
Proliferative: Uterine Events - Days 6-14. Endometrium reparired, glands and blood vessels proliferate. Endometrium thickens. / Ovarian Events - follicular growth continues and vesicular follicles produced. Estrogen secreted and peaks at day 14. Ovulation occurs on the 14th day.
Secretive: Uterine Events / Ovarian Events
Secretive: Uterine Events - Days 15 - 28. Vascular supply increases and glands begin secretory activity / Ovarian Events - Ruptured follicle is converted to a corpus luteum, which begins to produce progesterone (and some estrogen). Peaks at day 23 and then begins to decline.
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: primitive stem cell
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: spermatogonium
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: haploid
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: products of meiosis II
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: spermatid
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: product of spermiogenesis
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: sperm
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: product of meiosis I
Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: secondary spermatocyte
A common part of any physical examination of the male is palpation of the prostate. How is this accomplished?
through the anterior wall of the rectum
How might enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?
Constriction of the urethera at that point may lead to nonpassage of urine or semen.
Why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity?
Testes are located in the scrotum to provide a slightly cooler temperature necessary for sperm production.
ductus (vas) deferens
muscular passageway conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord
(or simply glans) is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the penis. It is also commonly referred to as the 'head of the penis.
Describe the composition of semen, and name all structures contributing to its formation.
sperm and the alkaline secretions of the prostate, seminal vesicles (also containg fructose), and the bulbourethral glands
Of what importantace is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?
buffers the sperm against the acid environment of the female reproductive tract
What structures compose the spermatic cord?
Connective tissue sheath (extension of abdominal fascia), ductus deferens, blood vessels, and lymph vessels
Where is the spermatic cord located?
passes from the scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity
Trace the pathway of the sperm from the testes to the urethra:
seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens
Name the structures composing the external genitalia, or vulva, of the female
mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings, hymen, and greater vestibular glands
Do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? Why or why not?
Yes. There is no anatomic continuity between the oary and the first part of the duct system (i. e. uterine tube)
What is an ectopic pregnancy, and how can it happen?
Implantatino of the embryo in a site other than the uterus. may occur when the uterine tubes aer blocked (prevents passage) or when the egg is "lost" in the peritoneal cavity and fertiliazation occurs there.
Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect: vaginal orifice, anus, urethral opening, and clitoris
clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal orifice, anus
Assume a couple has just consummated teh sex act and the male's sperm have been deposited in the woman's vagina. Trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract
vagina, cervix, uterus, uterine tube, peritoneal cavity
The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connncective tissue. each of these lobes contains one to four _____, which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the _____.
seminiferous tubules, rete testis
What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the male penis?
This tissue can become engorge with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device.
Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out:
endometrium, myometrium, serosa (perimetrium)
What is the function of the stereocilia exhibited by teh epithelial cells of the mucosa of the epididymis?
Absorb excess fluid and provide nutrients to the maturing sperm
Name the mixed endocrine glands
gonads, varied numbers of hormone-producing cells within intestine
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Growth Hormone (GH)
What is the function of follicle-stimulating hormone
critical for follicular maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis. Serum FSH levels are known to fluctuate during different phases of menstrual cycle in premenopausal women, and increase considerably after the menopause as a result of ovarian function cessation
What is the function of luteinizing hormone
In the female, an acute rise of LH - the LH surge - triggers ovulation  and corpus luteum development.
In the male, where LH had also been called Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.
What is the function of Adrenocorticotropic hormone
regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
What is the function of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland
What is the function of Growth Hormone (GH)
general metabolic hormone
important role in body size
growth of muscle
long bones of the body
What is the function of oxytocin?
stimulates powerful uterine contractions
also causes ejection of milk in lactating mother
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone
causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urinary filtrate
minor role in increasing bloood pressure
Describe the thyroid gland
attached to hypothalamus
two lobes joined by isthmus
located in the throat
produces two major hormones :Thyroid Hormone (TH)
What is the function of Thyroid Hormone (TH)
primary function is to control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation