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urinary tract test
Terms in this set (45)
carry the urine from the kidneys to the bladder
transports urine to the outside of the body
The functions of the urinary system include:
Removing ______________ wastes from the body in the form of urine ( these wastes are the by-products of ____________ metabolism)
nitrogen containing, protein
maintaining proper _________
Helping regulate the concentration of __________ in the blood (things like calcium, potassium, sodium, etc.)
Regulating the _____ (acid/base balance) of the body.
Producing __________, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells.
Helping regulate your blood pressure
Storing ________ until it is released from the body
The ___________ are reddish-brown, bean-shaped organs
They are located in the ___________ cavity and are tightly attached to the back of the abdominal wall on either side of the vertebral column. They are somewhat protected posteriorly by the lowre _____.
The kidneys are retroperitoneal, which means that they are located behind the __________.
The _________ glands, part of the endocrine system, are located at the superior end of each kidney
The indented, medial aspect of each kidney where the renal artery, renal vein and ureter enter and exit is called the ________ ________
If you cut the kidney in half longitudinally, you can see that the inside of the kidney is divided into three distinct regions: the ______________, _____________, and the ________________
cortex, medulla, renal pelvis
The three regions of the kidney
1. ________________ ____________: outer layer
a. this part of the kidney contains nephrons, the functional unit of the kidney. This means that the nephrons make the _________
renal cortex, urine
2. ______________________: middle layer of the kidney
a. This layer contains small tubes called _________ _______ that funnel the urine toward the ureter
Medulla, collecting ducts
3. ____________ ____________: inner (medial) layer of kidney
a. A funnel-shaped cavity where urine from the collecting ducts collects before it enters the ureter. __________ _________ are formed in this area of the kidney
Renal Pelvis, kidney stones
The ___________ extend from the kidneys to the bladder. They use _________ to propel the urine into the bladder.
The ____________ is a hollow, distensible organ that is located in the pelvic cavity. It serves as a storage reservoir for urine until it is released from the body.
The cortex of each kidney contains about _________ nephrons.
The nephrons actually produce the _______.
Each nephron has two parts:
a. A small "ball" of capillaries called the _________ that filters the blood and produces a fluid called the _________ that will eventually become the urine.
The ______ _________ is a long, twisting tube where water, electrolytes and nutrients can be reabsorbed from this fluid and returned to the body if necessary. The finished product, or ___________ flows from the renal tubule into the collecting ducts.
renal tubule, urine
The glomeruli will filter between 150-180 liters of blood plasma a day to make ___________ of urine.
1 -2 liters
There are three stages of urine formation:
- blood enters the glomerulus through the larger _________ arteriole but has to exit the glomerulus through the much smaller ________ arteriole.
Glomerular filtration, afferent, efferent
This raises the blood pressure within the glomerulus and forces the __________ part of the blood through holes in the glomerular capillaries and into ___________________________ which is the first part of the renal tubule.
liquid, Bowman's capsule
The blood _______ and large proteins are too big to fit through the holes in the capillaries so they and some of the plasma remain within the capillaries. The liquid that leaves the blood and enters the renal tubule is called the _________.
b. _____________________ ___________________
- As soon as the filtrate enters the __________ ____________ _____ portion of the renal tubule, necessary ions, glucose and ____________ are moved out of the filtrate and back into the blood of the capillaries
Tubular reabsorption, proximal convoluted tubule, water
How much of each substance is returned to the blood depends on the ______________________________________ at that particular time. For example, someone who is dehydrated will return more _______ to the blood stream than someone who is well hydrated
needs of the body, water
- as the capillary blood flows past the proximal convoluted tubule, certain ________, excess ____________ ions (controls pH) and ______________ ions are removed from the blood and moved into the filtrate/urine
Tubular secretion, drugs, hydrogen, potassium
The urine normally contains:
a. ___________________ in varying amounts
b. _______, ____________, and ____________, the by products of protein breakdown
c. various ____________ that the body doesn't need
water, urea, uric acid, creatine, ions
Urine volume will be _________________ if excess fluids are consumed or _________________ if you have a fever or don't consume adequate amounts of fluid.
The _____________ carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
The bladder is lined with _________ epithelium, which has the ability to stretch when the bladder is full and then return to it's original shape
The bladder wall is composed of three layers of __________ muscle: this muscle contracts to empty your bladder and is called the __________ muscle
Your bladder can hold about ______ ml of urine before it becomes painful. You will begin to feel the urge to urinate when the bladder contains about 150-200 ml of urine.
Urination, the act of emptying the bladder is also called __________
The ability to "hold" your urine and control when to urinate is due to the presence of a circular ring of voluntary muscle(skeletal muscle) called the ____ ______ sphincter that is located at the start of the urethra
The _______________ carries the urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy & Physiology Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
The Human Body in Health & Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
Human Anatomy And Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn
Anatomy and Physiology
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