81 terms

Beekeeping

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Abscound
To leave a hive suddenly, usually because of problems with poor ventilation, too much heat, too much moisture, mites, moths, ants, beetles, lack of food, or other intolerable problems.
Acarine disease
The name that was given to the problems bees experience when they are infested with tracheal mites (Acarapis wood).
Africanized Honey Bee (AHB)
A short-tempered and aggressive bee that resulted from the introduction of African bees into Brazil, displacing earlier introductions of more gentle European bees. The media has dubbed Africanized bees as "killer bees" because of their aggressive behavior.
Apiary
This is the specific location where a hive(s) is kept. (Sometimes referred to as a bee yard.)
Apiculture:
The science, study, and art of raising honey bees. (As a beekeeper, you are an apiculturist!)
Apis
The scientific name for the European honey bee.
Apitherapy
The art and science of using products of the honey bee for therapeutic/ medical purposes.
Battery Box
Ventilated container used for shipping or housing caged queen bees and a small population of attending worker bees.
Beehive
The "house" where a colony (family) of honey bees lives. in nature, it may be the hollow of an old tree. For the beekeeper, it usually is a boxlike device containing frames of beeswax comb.
Beeswax
The substance secreted by glands in the worker bee's abdomen that is used by the bees to build comb. It can be harvested by the beekeeper and used to make candles, cosmetics, and other beeswax products.
Bottom Board
The piece of the hive that makes the ground floor.
Brace comb
Refers to the bits of random comb that connect two frames, or any hive parts, together. any extension of comb beyond what the bees build within the (This should be removed by the beekeeper to facilitate manipulation and inspection of frames.)
Burr comb
This is any extension of comb beyond what the bees build within the frames (This should be removed by the beekeeper to facilitate manipulation and inspection of frames.)
Brood
A term that refers to immature bees, in the various stages of development, before they have emerged from their cells (eggs, larvae, and pupae).
Brood chamber
The part of the hive where the queen lays eggs and the brood is raised. This is typically the lower deep.
Capped brood
The pupal cells that have been capped with a wax cover, enabling the larvae to spin a cocoon and turn into pupae.
Castes
The two types of female bees (workers and queens).
Cleansing flight
Refers to when bees fly out of the hive to defecate after periods of confinement. (A good day to wear a hat.)
Cluster
A mass of bees, such as a swarm. Also refers to when bees huddle together in cool weather.
Colony
A collection of bees (worker bees, drones, and a queen) living together as a single social unit.
Comb
A back-to-back collection of hexagonal cells that are made of beeswax and used by the bees to store food (honeycomb) and raise brood (brood comb).
Crystallization
The process by which honey granulates or becomes a solid (rather than a liquid).
Dancing
A series of repeated bee movements that plays a role in communicating information about the location of food sources and new homes for the colony.
Deep hive body
The box that holds standard full-depth frames. (A deep box is usually 9% inches deep. It is often simply referred to as a deep.)
Draw comb
A sheet of beeswax foundation (template) whose cells have been drawn out into comb using beeswax produced by the bees,
Drifting
Refers to when bees lose their sense of direction and wander into neighboring hives. (Drifting usually occurs when hives are placed too close to each other.) drone: The male honey bee whose main job is to fertilize the queen bee. egg: The first stage of a bee's development (metamorphosis).
Entrance reducer
A notched strip of wood placed at the hive's entrance to regulate the size of the "front door." Used mostly in colder months and on new colonies, it helps control temperatures and the flow of bees. It can also be used with new or small colonies to prevent robbing.
Extractor
A machine that spins honeycomb and removes liquid honey via centrifugal force. (The resulting honey is called extracted honey or liquid honey.)
Feeder
A device that is used to feed sugar syrup to honey bees.
Feral bees
A wild honey bee colony that is not managed by a beekeeper.
Follower board
Used in Top Bar hives, this snug-fitting device seals off a part of the hive chamber you don't want the bees to access. It can be moved to give the bees more or less space, depending upon the beekeeper's objectives.
Food chamber
The part of the hive used by the bees, to primarily store pollen and honey. This is typically the upper deep when two deep hive bodies are used.
Foulbrood
Bacterial diseases of bee brood. American foulbrood is very contagious — it is one of the most serious bee diseases. European foulbrood is less threatening. Colonies can be treated with an antibiotic (such as Terramycin) to prevent or treat foulbrood.
Queen cage
A small, screened box used to temporarily house queen bees (such as during shipment or when being introduced into a new hive).
Queen excluder
A frame holding a precisely spaced metal grid. The device usually is placed immediately below the honey supers to restrict the queen from entering that area and laying eggs in the honeycomb. The spacing of the grid allows foraging bees to pass through freely, but it is too narrow for the larger-bodied queen to pass through.
Queen mothers
Desirable queen(s) used as donors of eggs or young larvae to raise more queen bees.
Queen substance
A term that refers to the pheromone secreted by the queen. It is passed throughout the colony by worker bees.
Queenless
A small colony of bees (without a queen) that is used to draw out introduced queen cells and nurture the queen larvae.
Reversing
The managerial ritual of switching a colony's hive bodies to encourage better brood production. (Usually done in the early spring.)
Robbing
Pilfering of honey from a weak colony by other bees or insects.
Royal jelly
The substance that is secreted from glands in a worker bee's head and is used to feed the brood.
Scout bees
The worker bees that look for pollen, nectar, or a new nesting site.
Shallow super
The box that is used to collect 'surplus honey.' The box is 51%6 inches deep. (Sometimes called a honey super.)
Smoker
A tool with bellows and a fire chamber that is used by beekeepers to produce thick, cool smoke. The smoke makes colonies easier to work with during inspections.
Stringer
The hypodermic-like stinger is located at the end of the adult female bee's abdomen. Remember, bees don't bite! They sting.
Supercedure
The natural occurrence of a colony replacing an old or ailing queen with a new queen. (A cell containing a queen larva destined to replace the old queen is called a supercedure cell.)
Supering
supering: The act of adding (honey) supers to a colony.
Surplus honey
surplus honey: Refers to the honey that is above and beyond what a colony needs for its own use. It is this "extra" honey that the beekeeper may harvest for his or her own use.
Swarm
swarm: A collection of bees and a queen that has left one hive in search of a new home (usually because the original colony had become too crowded). Bees typically leave behind about half of the original colony and the makings for a new queen. The act itself is called swarming.
Top bars
top bars: The wooden planks that are placed in Top Bar hives on which the bees build natural, free-form wax comb.
Uncapped knife
uncapping knife: A device used to slice the wax capping off honeycomb that is to be extracted. (These special knives usually are heated electrically or by steam.)
Winter cluster
winter cluster: A tightly packed colony of bees, hunkered down for the cold winter months.
Worker bee
worker bee: The female honey bee that constitutes the majority of the colony's population. Worker bees do most of the chores for the colony (except egg laying, which is done by the queen).
Foundation
foundation: A thin sheet of beeswax that has been embossed with a pattern of hexagon-shaped cells. Bees use this as a guide to neatly build full-depth cells into comb.
Frame
frame: Four pieces of wood that come together to form a rectangle designed to hold foundation that the bees draw into honeycomb.
Hive tool
hive tool: A metal device used by beekeepers to open the hive and pry frames apart for inspection.
Grafting
grafting: The manual process of transporting young larvae into special wax or plastic "queen cell cups" in order to raise new queen bees.
Hive
hive: A home provided by the beekeeper for a colony of bees.
Honey flow
honey flow: The period of time when one or more major nectar sources (flowers) are in full bloom and the weather is perfect for the bees to fly and collect lots of nectar for making honey. (Sometimes called a nectar flow.)
Honey press
honey press: A screw press tool used to squeeze and strain honey from the comb. It's used to harvest liquid honey from Top Bar hives.
Honeycomb
honeycomb: Comb that has been filled with honey.
Inbreeding
inbreeding: The production of offspring from the mating or breeding of bees that are closely related genetically, in contrast to outcrossing, which refers to mating unrelated individuals.
Inner cover
inner cover: A flat board with a ventilation hole that goes between the upper hive body and the outer (top) cover.
Larva
larva (pl. larvae): The second stage in the development (metamorphosis) of the bee.
laying worker: A worker bee that lays eggs. (Because they are unfertile, their eggs can only develop into drones.)
Marked queen
marked queen: A queen bee marked on the thorax with a dot of paint to make it easier to find her, document her age, or keep track of her.
Miticides
miticides: Pesticide chemicals used to control mites.
Nectar
nectar: The sweet, watery liquid secreted by plants. (Bees collect nectar and make it into honey.)
Nosema disease
Nosema disease: An illness of the adult honey bee's digestive track caused by the fungal pathogens, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. The disease can be controlled with an antibiotic (such as Fumigilin-B).
Neonicotinoids
neonicotinoids: A class of insecticides that act on the central nervous system of insects. Neonicotinoids are among the most widely used insecticides worldwide, but their use may have a connection to colony collapse disorder.
Nectar flow
The period of time when one or more major nectar sources (flowers) are in full bloom and the weather is perfect for the bees to fly and collect lots of nectar. (Some-times called a honey flow.)
Nucleus hive (nuc)
A small colony of bees housed in a three- to five-frame cardboard or wooden hive.
Outer cover
The "lid" that goes on top of the hive to protect against the elements. (Sometimes called a top cover or telescoping outer cover.)
Nuptial mating flight
The flight that a newly emerged virgin queen takes when she leaves the hive to mate with drones.
Outcrossing
The practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. It increases genetic diversity, thus reducing the probability of disease and/or reducing genetic abnormalities.
Nurse bees
Young adult bees who feed the larvae.
Pheromone
A chemical scent released by an insect or other animals that will stimulate a behavioral response in others of the same species.
Pollen
The powdery substance that is the male reproductive cell of flowers. (Bees collect pollen as a protein food source.)
Queen
The mated female bee, with fully developed ovaries, that produces male and female offspring. (There is usually only one queen to a colony.)
Propolis
A sticky, resinous material that bees collect from trees and plants and use to seal up cracks and strengthen comb. It has antimicrobial qualities. (Also called bee glue.)
Pupa (pupea: pl)
The third and final stage in the honey bee's metamorphosis before it emerges from the capped cell as a mature bee.
Queen bank
The storage of mated honeybee queens in cages within a full-sized colony of bees.