Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
General Chemistry Chapter 3: Bonding and Chemical Interactions
Terms in this set (17)
Key Concept I: Octet Rule and its Exceptions
The octet rule is the desire of all atoms to achieve noble gas configuration (Group VIII). However, keep in mind that there are many exceptions to this rule.
Octet Rule Exceptions
1) Incomplete Octet: These elements are stable with fewer than eight electrons in their valence shell and include hydrogen (stable with 2 electrons), helium (2), lithium (2), beryllium (4), and boron (6).
2) Expanded Octet: Any element in Period 3 and greater can hold more than eight electrons, including phosphorus (10), sulfur (12), chlorine (14), and many others.
3) Odd numbers of electrons: Any molecule with an odd number of valence electrons cannot distribute those electrons to give eight to each atom; for example, Nitric Oxide (NO) has eleven valence electrons.
Mnemonic I: Metal/Cation - Nonmetal/Anion
MeTals lose electrons to become caTions = posiTive (+) ions.
Nonmetals gain electrons to become aNions = Negative (-) ions.
Key Concept II: Bond Lengths and Bond Strengths
C-C = Longest Bond Length and Weakest Bond Strength.
C=C = Medium Bond Length and Medium Bond Strength
C ≡ C = Shortest Bond Length and Strongest Bond Strength
You will see this inverse relationship between bond length and strength in both organic and general chemistry.
Mnemonic II: Naturally Occurring Diatomic Elements
Here's a quick way to remember the naturally occuring diatomic elements on the periodic table: they form the number 7 on the periodic table (except for H), there are 7 of them, and most of them are in Group VIIA: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2.
Key Concept III: Drawing Lewis Dot Structures
In drawing Lewis dot structures, remember that some atoms can expand their octets by utilizing the d-Orbitals in their outer shell. This will only take place with atoms in period 3 or greater.
Equation: Formal Charge
Formal Charge = V - N(nonbonding) - 1/2N(bonding)
V = the normal number of electrons in the atom's valence shell.
N(nonbonding) = The number of nonbonding electrons
N(bonding) = The number of bonding electrons.
What is VSEPR Theory and what are the three steps?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory
1) Draw the Lewis dot structure of the molecule.
2) Count the total number of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom.
3) Arrange the electron pairs around the central atom so that they are as far apart as possible. For example, the compound AX2 has the lewis structrue X : A : X. The A atom has two bonding electron pairs in its valence shell. To position these electron pairs as far apart as possible, their geometric structure should be linear:
X - A - X
What are the five most common electronic configurations of molecules?
Key Concept IV: Electronic vs. Molecular Geometry
The shapes from the previous table refer to electronic geometry, which is different from molecular geometry.
Ammonia has a tetrahedral electronic structure (the spatial arrangement of all pairs of electrons around the central atom, including both the bonding and the lone pairs).
Ammonia has a trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry (describes the spatial arrangement of only the bonding pairs of electrons).
Mnemonic III: Hydrogen Bonds, where do they exist?
Hydrogen bonds: Pick up the FON (phone):
Hydrogen bonds exist in molecules containing a hydrogen bonded to Fluorine, Oxygen, or Nitrogen.
Steps for Drawing Lewis Structures
1) Write the skeletal structure of the compound.
2) Count all the valence electrons of the atoms.
3) Draw single bonds between the central atom and the atoms surrounding it.
H : C : N
4) complete the octets of all atoms bonded to the central atom, using the remaining valence electrons still to be assigned.
5) Place any extra electrons on the central atom.
Polar Covalent Bond
Bonding electron pair is not shared equally, but pulled toward more electronegative atom.
Complex Ion (Coordination Compound)
A Lewis acid-base adduct with a cation bonded to at least one electron pair donor (including water). Donor molecules are called LIGANDS and can use COORDINATE COVALENT BONDS. The central cation can be bonded to the same ligand multiple times in a process called CHELATION.
The partial positive charge of the hydrogen atom interacts with the partial negative charge located on the electronegative atoms (F, O, N) of nearby molecules.
Polar molecules orient themselves such that the positive region of one molecule is close to the negative region of another molecule.
The bonding electrons in covalent bonds may appear to be equally shared between two atoms, but at any particular point in time they will be located randomly throughout the orbital. This permits unequal sharing of electrons, causing TRANSIENT polarization and counter polarization of the electron clouds of neighboring molecules, inducing the formation of more dipoles.
Recommended textbook explanations
Chemistry: The Central Science
Bruce Edward Bursten, Catherine J. Murphy, H. Eugene Lemay, Matthew E. Stoltzfus, Patrick Woodward, Theodore Brown
Matta, Staley, Waterman, Wilbraham
Physical Science Concepts In Action
Frank, Wysession, Yancopoulos
Glencoe Physical Science
McLaughlin, Thompson, Zike
Sets found in the same folder
General Chemistry Chapter 7 - Thermochem…
General Chemistry Chapter 12: Electroche…
General Chemistry Chapter 10: Acids and…
General Chemistry Chapter 1: Atomic Stru…
Sets with similar terms
3. Bonding & Chemical Interactions
Chapter 1-A Review of General Chemistry
Chemistry Test #4
Other sets by this creator
Barcelona Menu - Charcuterie + Cheese
AAMC Section Bank
Other Quizlet sets
BLOCK 7 Exam ALL TOPICS
Lessons 16, 17, 18, 19 Flash Cards
Lecture 6 - Merchandise Inventory
2.2 - The Principles of Counting