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118 terms

German Quickly 1

STUDY
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Affe
ape (ff medial or final =p)
hoffen
to hope (ff medial or final = p and en final lower case = verb)
scharf
sharp (f medial or final = p)
Schiff
ship (ff medial or final = p and upper case = noun)
Pfeife
pipe (pf initial, medial, and final = p or pp and upper case = noun)
Pflaster
plaster (pf initial, medial and final= p or pp and upper case = noun)
Apfel
apple (pf initial, medial, and final = p or pp and upper case = noun)
geben
to give (b medial or final = v or f and en lower case = verb, vowels are vlexible)
Grab
grave (b medial or final = f or v and upper case = verb)
halb
half (b medial or final = v or f)
Pfad
path (pf = p and d=th)
Feder
feather (d=th)
Ding
thing (d=th)
Dorn
thorn (d=th)
Buch
book (ch=k and voweld are vlexible where consonants are consistent)
machen
to make (ch=k and en final lower case indicates a verb)
suchen
to seek (ch= k, vowels are vlexible and en lower case indicates a verb)
Macht
might (cht=ght and vowels are vlexible)
Sicht
sight (cht=ght)
Recht
right (cht=ght and vowels are vlexible)
Nacht
night (cht = ght and vowels are vlexible)
sagen
to say (g=y or i and en lower case indicates a verb)
legen
to lay (g= y or i and en lower case indicates a verb)
Nagel
nail (g= y or i, upper case is a noun)
fliegen
to fly (g= y or i, en lower case indicates a verb)
Kalb
calf (b medial or final= v or f, K=c)
komisch
comical (k=c, sch final can be cal)
kommen
to come (k=c, en final w/o capital letter indicates a verb)
kritisch
critical (k=c, sch final can =cal)
hassen
to haste (ss=t, en final lower case indicates a verb)
grüßen
to greet (ß = t, en final lower case = verb)
Fuß
foot (ß = t)
Straße
street (medial, final ss or ß = t, not initial. Also note that althought there is always correspondance between consanants, the vowels are more flexible)
besser
better (medial or final ss=t)
Zunge
tongue (z=t)
Pflanze
plant (pf=p and z=t)
Katze
cat (k=c and z=t)
trinken
to drink (t=d and en final lower case= a verb)
Tochter
daughter (t=d and cht=ght)
Karte
card (k=c and t=d, vowels are vlexible where consonants are consistent)
kalt
cold (k=c and t=d, remember that vowels are vlexible were consonants are consistent)
hören
to hear (vowels are vlexible)
das Haus
house (vowels are vlexible)
lassen
to let (ss=t, en final on lower case word indicates a verb, and vowels are vlexible)
Sonne
sun
How the gender of a compound noun is determined
By its final component, or the suffix.
Abendland
occident
Morgenland
morning + country = Orient
Morgenröte
morning + Röte red = dawn
Eierauflauf
eggs + riot = souffle
letter endings of a noun that indicate it is plural
L-E-R-N
der Apfel
apple (die Äpfel)
der Titel
title (die Titel)
when a masculine noun that ends in L is plural
an umlaut will be added to the medial vowel or there will be no ending and the "die" will be the only indicator
der Freund
friend (die Freunde)
der Gast
guest (die Gäste)
das Jahr
year (die Jahre)
die Idee
idea (die Ideen)
der Student
student (Die Studenten)
die Wahrheit
truth (die Wahrheiten)
das Mädchen
girl (die Mädchen)
die nummer
number (die Nummern)
die Freundschaft
friendship (die Freundschaften)
die Katze
cat (die Katzen)
plural for neuter nouns ending in -en
None (Only the die article will tell you if it is plural)
plural end for masculine nouns ending in -er
None
When a noun is always plural
When it ends in -en and the article is die.
When a noun is never plural
der with masculine or das. does not end in L-E-R-N or occasionally S
der Lehrer
teacher (die Lehrer)
das Kind
child (die Kinder)
das Land
country (die Länder)
das Haus
house (die Häuser)
Nouns ending in S
plurals from a foreign origin
der Chef
boss (die Chefs)
das Genie
genius (die Genies)
Nouns ending in A
Latin
die Frau
woman
das Kind
n child
das Tier
animal
der Löffel
spoon
die Sonne
sun
die Gabel
fork
der Messer
knife
Masculine Nouns:
male beings
end in -er, which are formed from verbs
der Vater
father
der Onkel
uncle
der Hahn
rooster
der König
king
der Fahrer
driver
der Erfinder
inventor
Feminine Nouns:
female beings
end in -ei, -ie, -heit, -keit, -ik, -schaft, -tät, -tion, -ung
end in -in (a suffix added to nouns that are usually masculine)
4. many, but not all nouns that end in -e are feminine
die Mutter
mother
die Tante
aunt
die Henne
hen
die Geologie
geology
die Gesundheit
health
die Freundlichkeit
friendliness
die Musik
music
die Freundschaft
friendship
die Universität
university
die Rotation
rotation
die Sammlung
collection
die Nachbarin
neighbor lady
die Freundin
girlfriend
die Königin
queen
die Erde
earth
die Rose
rose
die Hölle
hell
Neuter nouns:
end in -chen or -lein
directly formed from verbs
end in -ium, -tum, -ment, and -sel
das Fraülein
little women
das Häuschen
little house
das Brüderlein
little brother
das Singen
the singing
das Leben
the life
das Stadium
the study
das Christentum
Christianity
das Abonnement
subscription
das Rätsel
riddle