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psychology study guide 1

Chapters 1-2
STUDY
PLAY
The median of a distribution of scores is the:
middle score in a distribution of scores.
The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to:
recognize the errors in our own ideas.
The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by inter neurons in the
spinal cord
In an experimental study, men with E.D. received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none vs. peak dose) was the
independent variable
In Roger Sperry's view, the brain creates and controls the mind, which in turn influences the brain. Sperry understands the mind and brain as a
holistic system
The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the
cerebellum
an action potential ion is generated by the movement of
ions
the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
neural networks
"I could have told you that your investment plan would fail" illustrates?
hindsight bias
the sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
touch
at the age of 22 less than 4 ft tall due to lack of growth hormone produced by the?
pituitary gland
correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables...?
influence each other
which lobe of the brain receives the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
parietal
the visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates...?
plasticity
the enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their...?
culture
To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between populations, you should determine the ______ of the observed differences.
standard deviation
to compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. Which method did this illustrate?
naturalistic observation
Illusory correlation refers to
the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not exist.
which region of your brain stem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
cerebellum
when a person speaks, brain waves and blood flow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the
left hemisphere
to determine whether the strength of people's self esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of:
case studies
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes
deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment.
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicated that a neuron's reaction is
an all-or-none response.
A questioning attitude regarding psychologist assumptions and hidden values best illustrates?
Critical thinking
A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of:
sexual motivation
Endorphins are
neurotransmitters
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances
Replication
left handers are
more migraine and allergens
Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in
naturalistic observation.
The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the
mean
Left-handedness is ________ common than usual among mathematicians and ________ common than usual among artists.
more; more
The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the right ________ lobe
temporal
On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin's advanced chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of
6
an axon is
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
median is to range as central tendency is to
skewed distribution
a researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
self esteem and depression
To find out whether breast-milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children, psychologists used
experiments.
What is The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionary oldest to newest
brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex
The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a
bargraph
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
Prediction
Minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Threshold
Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, when offered a job in another state, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates.
Overconfidence
If a professor accused you if cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ___ into your bloodstream
Endorphins (I don't think this is right, endorphin are a chemical released in your brain and adrenal glands release epinephrine.)
Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean
68
When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying
random assignment
Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
hypothalamus
Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human paitents in order to reduce
epileptic seizures
Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an
oversupply of glutamate
Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have been during the past season. which of the following measures would tell her what she wants to know.
median
To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her school, Ariana sent a questionaire to every 15th person in the registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana is ensuring that her survey results are accurate by using.
Random Sampling
Akira dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Akira concluded that dreams accurately predict future evens. Her belief best illustrates
An illusory correlation
The localization of a function such as speech production to the right or left side of the brain is called
lateralization
On a series on coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy
is a random and coincidental occurence
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is likely to have difficulty
Playing his guitar
Hormnones, the chemical messengers of the endocrine system, travel through the bloodstream to affect other
tissues
Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions
The part of the Central Nervous System that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the
Spinal cord
Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell
Thalamus
Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps on his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a
severed spinal cord.
The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by
illusory correlations
A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.
frontal
The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous systems.
peripheral
Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?
the experiment
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
discerning human similarities and differences.
The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
hypothalamus
Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of re-election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of
random sampling.
Dendrites are branching extensions of
neurons.
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
-0.99
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)
lesion.
Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and 16. The mean age of the Klostreich children is
8.
In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is
$10,000.
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
neurotransmitters.
The perception that seemingly infertile couples who adopt a child are subsequently more likely to conceive a child themselves best illustrates
an illusory correlation.
Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from a
sample to a population.
After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he could no longer figure out how to find his way around his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
association areas.