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32 terms

ch. 10 genetics study guide

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Trait
variation of a particular inherited character
Genetics
study of heredity
Hybrid
offspring of two different true-breeding varieties
Purebred
offspring of two of the same breeding varieties
monohybrid cross
mating of two organisms that differ in only one character
allele
alternative form of a gene
homozygous
having identical alleles for a gene
heterozygous
having different alleles for a gene
dominant
descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait
recessive
descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that does not appear to affect a trait
Punnett square
diagram showing the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Phenotype
observable traits of an organism
Genotype
genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles
Testcross
mating of an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual
dihybrid cross
mating of two organisms that differ in two characters
intermediate inheritance
inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes
codominance
inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct traits of both alleles
polygenic inheritance
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
gene locus
specific location of a gene on a chromosome
sex-linked gene
gene located on a sex chromosome
Gregor Mendel
the Father of Modern Genetics
Law of Segregation
Allele pairs (the two alleles for a heritable character) separate during gametogenesis and end up in different gametes
Law of Independanet Assortment
Each allele for a trait segregates into gametes independently of any other alleles
mulitiple alleles
more than two alleles on one chromosome
X - linked
one parent lacks a gene
incomplete dominance
Neither allele is dominant. Heterozygote shows intermediate phenotype
incomplete dominance
a blue chicken that has black and white parents, would be an example of...
codominance
a roaning horse of calf would be an example of..
codominace
spots/patches
incomplete dominance
no spots/patches (all one color)
multiple alleles
human blood type is an example of..
polygenic inheritance
eye color, weight, and skin color are examples of