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Chapter 11: Organizing the Body of the Speech
Terms in this set (21)
The first part of a speech, in which the speaker establishes the speech purpose and its relevance to the audience and previews the topic and main points.
The part of the speech in which the speaker develops the main points intended to fulfill the speech's purpose.
-main points, supporting points, and transitions
The part of the speech in which the speaker reiterates the speech thesis, summarizes main points, and leaves the audience with something to think about and possibly act upon.
Statements that express the key ideas and major themes of a speech. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis statement.
creating main points:
-identify most important ideas you want to convey
-what major finding emerge from research
-restrict number of main points (2-7)
-restrict each one to single idea
-mutually exclusive of one another
-express as declarative sentence
-best recalled points are at end "recency effect" and beginning "primacy effect"
-should flow directly from your specific purpose and thesis statements.
Information (examples, narratives, testimony, and facts and statistics) that clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the speaker's main points.
-arrange in order of importance or relevance to main point
Checklist for reviewing main and supporting points
-Do the main points flow directly from the speech goal and thesis?
-Do the main points express the key points of the speech?
-Is each main point truly a main point or a sub point of another main point?
-Is each main point substantiated by at least two supporting points---or none?
-Do you spend roughly the same amount of time on each main point?
-Are the supporting points truly subordinate to the main points?
-Does each main point and supporting point focus on a single idea?
-Are the main and supporting points stated in parallel form?
coordination and subordination
Logical alignment of speech points in an outline relative to their importance to one another. Coordinate ideas receive equal weight; subordinate ideas receive relatively less weight than coordinate ideas and are placed below them.
Speech points given the same weight in an outline and aligned with one another; thus Main Point II is coordinate with Maine Point I
Speech points subordinate to others that are thus given relatively less weight. In an outline, they are indicated by their indentation below the more important points.
Principles of Coordination and Subordination
-Assign equal weight to ideas that are coordinate
-Assign relatively less weight to ideas that are subordinate
-Indicate coordinate points by their parallel alignment
-Indicate subordinate points by their indentation below the more important points
-Every point must be supported by at least two points or none at all (consider how to address on dangling point by including it in the point above it).
roman numeral outline
An outline formate in which main points are enumerated with roman numerals; supporting points with capital letters; third-level points with Arabic numerals; and fourth-level points with lowercase letters.
characteristics of well-organized speech
-unity, when contains only points implied by the specific purpose and thesis statements
-coherence, when organized clearly and logically, using principles of coordination and subordination to align speech point in order of importance
-balance, appropriate emphasis or weight be given to each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme
Words, phrases, or sentences that tie speech ideas together and enable a speaker to move smoothly from one point to the next.
Use transitions to move between:
-The intro and the body of speech
-The main points
-The subpoenas, when appropriate
-Body of the speech & conclusion
-Introduce main points
-Illustrate cause and effect
-Signal explanation and examples
-Emphasize, repeat, compare, contrast ideas
-Summarize and preview info
-Suggest conclusions from evidence
Use transitional words and phrases....
-To show comparisons
-To contrast ideas
-To illustrate cause and effect
-To illustrate sequence of time or events
-To indicate explanation
-To indicate additional examples
-To emphasize significance
full sentence transitions
A signal to listeners, in the form of a declarative sentence, that the speaker is turning to another topic.
-Use when moving from one main point to another
Statement included in the introduction of a speech in which the speaker identifies the main speech points.
An extended transition that alerts audience members to ensuing speech content.
An extended transition used within the body of a speech that summarizes important ideas before proceeding to another speech point.
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