Terms in this set (111)
What are the three P's of Policy?
Participants (formal and informal)
60% of people in the US own property that is between what two sizes in acres?
A) 1-9 Acres
B) 10-25 Acres
C) 25-75 Acres
D) 75-150 Acres
A) 1-9 Acre Plots
Why do most people in America maintain ownership of their land?
B) Family Legacy
D) All of the above
D) All of the above
What does REDD stand for?
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degredation
What is REDDs mission statement?
To create a financial value for carbon stored in forests and offering incentives especially to developing countries.
Please list the 4 Eras of Forest Policy.
Nation-building and forest exploitation,
Rise of the conservation movement,
Development of scientific forestry and sustainable-yield wood production,
What are the 5 historical trends in US Wildlife policy?
What is the definition of policy?
Any governing principle, plan, or course of action.
Who makes public policy?
Made by government officials such as legislators, governors, agency directors, or judges.
What is the purpose of policies?
To represent rules that a group of people and organizations, or a government makes so it doesn't have to rethink its decisions every time an issue arises.
What are the instruments of Public Policy?
Coercion through (Prohibitive) regulations (stick)
Coercion through financial incentives (carrots)
What are policy statements?
The serve the purpose of delineating the object of the policy
What are the 5 types of policy?
What does Constituent Policy do?
Relates to structure and composition of government (Division of Power among government jurisdictions)
What does Distributive Policy involve?
It involves allocation of benefits of service to particular segments of the population (Farm Subsidies)
What does Regulatory Policy focus on?
Focuses on resolving and settling conflicts between two or more groups. (Pollution control programs)
What is Self-Regulatory Policy?
When groups of professionals voluntarily cooperate with the government to protect/promote their own interests. (Special licensing or Registration)
What does Redistributive Policy involve?
It involves deliberative efforts by the government to shift allocation of wealth income, property, or rights among broad classes of the population. (Graduated income tax policy)
What does the Historical Approach to study policy entail?
Understanding how we got where we are.
Provides framework of analysis to interpret lessons from the past and apply in the future.
What is the Institutional Approach (Institutionalism)
Focuses on the players, not the policies themselves.
What does the Procedural/analytical approach to studying policy rely on?
Models of political decision-making process.
What is incrementalism?
Branching from the past policies. Muddling through policy.
What is rationalism?
Beginning from a new root. Creates policies that maximize the net value to society or most effectively achieve a desired end are adopted.
What is Mixed Scanning?
A synthesis of both Rationalism and incrementalism.
What are the steps in the policy process?
What is Problem Formulation?
A problem or issue is perceived and demand for action is made.
What is policy agenda?
Demand is recognized and problem is placed on the agenda for action.
What is Policy Formulation
Acceptable course of action developed to deal with the problem.
What is Policy Adoption?
Policy is selected to address problems and made as policy statements.
What is Policy Implementation?
Policy statement Implemented by appropriate government agency, may include legislative oversight or judicial review.
What is Policy evaluation?
Informal or formal determination of policy effectiveness made, suggested improvements considered.
What is an Issue?
Problems characterized by significant disagreement. A matter of dispute between two or more parties
What is a problem?
An intricate unsettled question.
What are the 4 Major means of issue creation?
Initiated by groups who perceive an unfavorable bias towards their views in the existing distributiton of positions of resources,
Initiated and exploited for group's own gain,
In order to be placed on the docket for decision makers, the issue must be placed on what?
What are the two types of Agendas?
General (Systemic) agenda,
What happens with the general (Systemic) Agenda?
Discussion (Rather than action) of important issues such as water pollution, crime, etc.
What happens with the formal agenda?
Explicit issues up for active and serious consideration. This is what actually reached policy makers.
What determines is the issue will reach formal agenda status?
Interest group involvement,
Interest group strategies.
Explain the Agenda setting process.
What are the four kinds of groups seeking agenda status?
A) Well-organized group with established access to policy makers
B) Well-organized group without established access
C) Poorly established group with well established access
D) Poorly established group without access
What are some of the characteristics of issues?
The more ambiguous the broader the appeal,
needs to have social significance,
Technical sophistication can limit an issues expansion.
In Agenda setting, what is analysis?
The science. Taking the rational and comprehensive approach.
In Agenda setting, what is advocacy?
The Values. Individuals or groups trying to prescribe policies.
What are the four broad categories of decision and evaluation criteria?
What is the main idea of the Brundtland Report of 1987.
To provide the current generation with its needs without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their needs.
What type of economy do we have?
If we have a Free-Market Economy, why should the public sector become involved in decision-making?
Because, although the market is efficient it might not always by fair for everyone.
Why not use the "Invisible Hand"
The individual self-interest will lead to the best of all possible outcomes with a minimum collective intervention.
What are some of the problems with relying on the market?
The market can cause problems like, pollution, poverty, endangered species, animal populations, healthcare, natural resources etc.
What are the values that are not necessarily considered in market transactions?
Industrial foresters do not share the same values as a member of the wilderness society.
Why must the government be involved with natural resources?
Many of them are not traded on the market. Additionally, some market goods might not be optimally produced under private market systems.
What are the causes of Market Failure?
Non-market Costs and Benefits,
What is Property Rights and their effect.
When the property rights are inadequately defines, not exclusive, or poorly enforced.
This causes overexploitation of common-pool goods and inadequate provision of public goods.
What is the public policy response to property rights?
Government management of resources under public ownership and government regulation or private owners.
What is Non market Costs and Benefits? What is the effect?
When costs and benefits associated with a good are not reflected in the market price.
Producers will make less of the good than would be socially desirable.
What is the public policy response for Non Market costs and Benefits?
Government is better able to protect long-term social interests than is the market.
What is imperfect Knowledge?
People not being made aware of the quality of goods/services they produce/buy.
What is the public policy for imperfect knowledge?
Offer technical assistance in education programs.
What is imperfect competition?
A few buyers or a few sellers that can collude to alter prices.
What is the public policy response to Imperfect competition?
State foresters should help private consultants and landowners to improve competition.
What are the justifications for government intervention?
When there is a lack of efficiency, Equity, or stabilization.
What type of market failure is this and what could be a possible government solution?
Industries produce greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.
Government regulation of private owners
What type of market failure is this and what could be a possible government solution? Commuters in Niceville are having to pay a hefty fare to ride the region's only rail service.
Help improve competition
What type of market failure is this and what could be a possible government solution? Used car salesman fail to share all the information regarding car's mechanical problems to potential buyers
Offer technical assistance and education programs to help correct disparities in knowledge and to help ensure all can compete under the same rules.
What type of market failure is this and what could be a possible government solution? Air pollution from a fertilizer plant leads to a misallocation of resources such that more fertilizer is produced than is socially optimal.
Nonmarket Costs and Benefits.
Government is better able to protect long-term social interest than the market
What are some examples of modern forestry debates?
Proponents of the Marketplace,
Two kinds of market (Political and Private),
Continual expansion of the government's role in regulation in recent years,
Disagreement of the relative amount of government intervention that should continue.
What is the Iron Triangle?
What are the checks and balances in the US Government's three branches?
How does a bill become a law?
How are the three branches of government arranged?
What is Shared Power?
The Executive Branch interacts continuously with other participants.
What is one way that governors can exert more influence than the president on their respective legislature?
What are the responsibilities and areas of influence of the executive branch?
Presidential Power (Veto) and checks (from Congress)
Payment for Ecosystem Service
Resource Planning Act
National Forest Management Act
National Environmental Protection Act
Endangered Species Act
Healthy Forest Initative
Department of Natural Resources' Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites Division
Georgia Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan
Land and Water Conservation Fund
National Environmental Policy and Action Plan
Clean Water Act
Clean Air Act
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Occupational Safety and Health Act
National Historic Preservation Act
Healthy Forest Restoration Act
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Threatened and Endangered
Equal Employment Opportunity Commision
Americans with Disabilities Act
Society of American Foresters
Civilian Conservation Corps
Bureau of Land Management
Environmental Protection Agency
US Corps of Engineers
Tennessee Department of Forestry
Tennessee Department of environment and conservation.
Not in my backyard
Resources for the Future
The Nature Conservancy
Mountain Association for Community Economic development
Tennessee Wildlife Federation