History Honors Chapter 23
Terms in this set (125)
What did many Americans fear about the return to a peacetime economy?
After the military production halted, and former soldiers glutted th labar market, unemployment and recession might sweep the country
What helped ward off a recession?
Increased consumer spending
As known as the Servicemen's Readjustment Act
- Provided generous funds to veterans to help them establish business, buy homes, and attend college
A greater __________ for goods led to __________ prices, and this ______________ soon triggered labor unrest.
Why did workers in automobile, steel, electrical, and mining industries go on strike?
For better pay since the cost of living rose
-Lead to higher prices and inflation in labor unrest due to strikes
Why did Truman order a government seizure of the mine?
He was afraid that the nation's energy supply would be drastically reduced because of the striking miners
How did Truman halt a strike for the nation's railroads?
By threatening to draft the striking workers into the army
Why was both houses of Congress in winning control for the first time since 1930?
The republicans seized sentiments of labor unrest an high prices during the 1946 congressional election
The practice of forcing business owners to hire only union memebers
Taft Hartley Act Right to work laws
- Outlawed closed shops
- States can pass right-to-work law(outlawed union shops)
- Prohibited featherbedding
-Forbade unions from using their money to support political campaigns
Shops in which new workers were required to join the union
The practice of limiting work output in order to create more jobs
Was the Taft-Hartley Act passed?
Yes, Congress passed it over Truman's veto
What did labor leaders call the Taft-Hartley Act?
A "slave labor" law and insisted that it erased many of the gains that unions made
Why did Truman veto the Taft-Hartley Act?
He felt that it brought the government into private economic affairs on an unprecedented scale and would cause more strikes without contributing to economic stability and progress
What did Truman propose shortly after taking office?
He proposed domestic measures seeking to continue the work of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal
Truman's proposals included...(6)
- expansion of Social Security benefits
- raising the minimum wage
- program to ensue full employment through aggressive use of federal spending and investment
- public housing and slum clearance
- long-range environmental and public works planning
-System of national health insurance
What act did Truman boldly ask Congress to pass?
A broad civil rights bill that would protect African Americans' right to vote, abolish poll taxes, and make lynching a federal crime
What did Truman's executive order order?
Ordered barring discrimination in federal employment and ending segregation in the armed forces
Why did most of Truman's legislative efforts met with little success?
Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats defeated his proposals
Why did truman have a small chance of winning the election of 1948?
-Americans believed he lacked stature and viewed his administration as inept
-Division in the Democratic Party was disastrous
Division at the Democratic Convention
2 fractions abandoned the party for Truman's support of civil rights
Democratic nominee for the election of 1948
Nominated by a group of Souther Democrats, Dixiecrat , nominated South Carloina Governor Strom Thurmond
Why was a new Progressive Party formed?
Liberal members were frustrated by Truman's ineffective domestic policies and critical of his anti-Soviet foreign policy
-Presidential candidate = Henry A. Wallace
Republican nominee for election of 1948
New York Governor Thomas Dewey, a dignified and poplar candidate who seemed unbeatable
Republican Congress Truman attacked as do nothing, good for nothing for refusing to enact his legislative agenda
What didn't Truman's attack on the "Do-Nothing Congress" mention?
- Passing of Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, National Security Act of 1947(created Department of Defense), National Security Council, CIA
-Established Joint Chiefs of Staff as permanent
-Made Air Force an independent branch
Limited a president to two terms in office
Did Truman win the election of 1948?
With support from laborers, African Americans, and farmers, YES over Dewey
What happened after Truman won the election?
Resurgence of the Democratic Party
-On election day, Democrats regained control of both houses of Congress
Every segment of our population and every individual has a right to expect from government a fair deal
How much did Legislators raise the legal minimum wage to ?
.75 an hour
How did Social Security benefits increase?
Increased to 75% and extended to 10 million additional people
- Eisenhower continued as well
National Housing Act of 1949
Provided for the construction of low-income housing, accompanied by long-term rent subsidies
Which Fair Deals did Congress refuse to pass?
-National health insurance
-Provide subsidies for farmers
-Federal aid for schools
What did Truman and Congress accomplish in foreign relations?
National Security Act, the Truman Doctrine's aid program to Greece and Turkey as well as the Marshall Plan
What ended Truman's Fair Deal?
When the US's national attention and resources went to war with Korea in 1950
Why did Truman decline to run again for presidency?
By 1952, the war was at a bloody stalemate and his approval rating dropped quickly
Republican nominee for election of 1952
Dwight Eisenhower - Former commander of the Allied Forces in Europe
- Promised to end the war in Korea
Democratic nominee for election of 1952
Adlai Stevenson - Illinois Governor
-"It's time for a change"
Who won the election of 1952?
Eisenhower 442 to 89
-Republicans also gained an 8 seat majority in the House
-Senate became evenly divided between both parties
Middle of the road
Described Eisenhower's political beliefs
Meant balancing economic conservatism with activism in areas that would benefit the country
What did Eisenhower end?
-Government price and rent controls
--Viewed unnecessary federal regulation of the economy
What did Eisenhower's administration believe was vital to the nation?
How did Eisenhower attempt to cut federal spending?
-Vetoed school construction bill
- Slashed government aid to public housing
-Modest tax cuts
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Lent money to banks, railroads, and other large institutions in financial trouble
-Eisenhower Abolished it shortly after office
Federal Highway Act
The largest public works program in American History
- $25 billion for 10year effort to construct 40k miles of interstate highway
-Wanted to connect the Great Lakes with the Atlatinc Ocean through a series of locks on the ST. Lawrence River
- Three previous president attempted to build
-Canada agreed with Eisenhower
Between the 1940s and 1955, what had happened to the average income of American families?
Who is John Kenneth Galbraith?
Economist who published The Affluent Society
- Claimed that the nation's post war prosperity was a new phenomenon
Economy of scarcity
A lack of resources and overpopulation had limited economic productivity
-All past societies
Economy of abundance
New business techniques and improved technology enabled the nation to produce an abundance of goods and services, dramatically rising the standard of living for Americans
-Us societies now
What became the fastest growing industry in the United States?
In New York, was one of the earliest of the mass-produced suburbs
Who mass-produced hundreds of simple and similar-looking homes in a potato field 10 miles east of New York City?
Reasons for the rapid growth of suburbia
-Escape the crime
-Congestion of city neighborhoods
-Would provide better life for themselves and their kids
-Symbolized the American dream
What made owning a home even more attractive?
The government giving income tax deductions for home-mortgage interest payments and property taxes
After WWII American birthrate exploded
- From 1945 to 1961 more than 65 million children were born
--Child born every 7 secs
Baby Boom factors
- Couples had to delay during WWII and Korean War
- Government encouraged the growth of families with GI benefits for home purchases
- Pop Culture celebrated pregnancy, parenthood, and large families
Employees typically wore a white shirt and tie to work
employees typically wore blue denim
Blue collar to white collar ratio
White collared outnumbers blue collared for first time in 1956
International corporations that located themselves closer to important raw materials and benefited from a cheaper labor pool, which made them more competitive
A person who owns and runs one or several stores of a chain operation
What did many business leaders believe that consumers valued?
Dependability and familiarity, that's why owners often demanded a uniform
What didn't franchise owners want?
Free-thinking individuals or people who might speak out or criticize the company
What did the Lonely Crowd book state?
Sociologist David Riesman argued that this conformity was changing people
Judging themselves on the basses of their own values and the esteem of their families
Concerned with winning the approval of the corporation or community
Who mention that a person with ideas is considered a threat?
William H. Whyte, Jr., author of The Organization Man
Describe two causes and effects of the economic boom of the 1950s.
Causes: new business methods and improved manufacturing technology
Effects: average family income tripled and the number of white-collar jobs increased
Who developed the transistor?
-Walter H. Brattain
- William Shockley
Tiny electric generator that made it possible to miniaturize radios from large pieces of furniture to small portable items
What was the nation's earliest computers?
ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
-Developed by US Army to make military calculations
What was the newer model of the ENIAC?
UNIVAC- Universal Automatic Computer
-Would process business data and launch the computer revolution
Jet airline increased use of
- Plastics and light metals
- the development of the jet engine
- swept back wing design(improved fuel efficiency)
- long flight range
What did development in the jet airline reduce?
Consumer costs, making airline travel available to the masses
Medical break thought of the 1950s
-Development of new, powerful antibiotics
- Vaccines to fight infection
-Intro to fight cancer and heart disease
What helped many cancer patients survive?
Development of radiation treatments and chemotherapy
What was used to help heart disease?
CPR - cardiopulmonary resuscitation
What did doctors begin replacing worn out heart valves with?
What was known as the white plague?
- Highly infectious and contagious
-Antibiotics and blood test put an end to it
-Survivors often used iron lung(metal tanks with pumps that help them breath)
-Public swimming areas were closed
Heracles scientist who developed an injectable vaccine to prevent polio
Developed an oral vaccine for polio becoming the most common method for preventing polio
More people turned in to watch which show than the presidential inauguration the following day?
I Love Lucy
What happened as the popularity of television grew?
Movies lost viewers
-1/5 of the nation's movie theaters closed
How did Hollywood try to lure people back?
-3-D films that required special glasses
Process that showed movies on large, panoramic screens
-Television couldn't match
How did the radio industry compete with the television industry?
Radio stations broadcast-ed recorded music, news, weather, sport, and talk show
What industry saved the radio industry?
-People commuting relied on radio for info and entertainment
- noticed white teens buying African American rhythm and blues records and dancing
-convinced his station manager to play music on air
-listeners went crazy for it
-white artists began making music that stemmed from African American rhythms and sound known as, rock'n'roll
Cultural separation between children and their parents
What white writers and artists were called by American culture
(Often poets, writers, and artists)
-Considered the sterility and conformity of American life meaninglessness of American politics and the emptiness of popular culture
Wrote On the Road about his freewheeling adventures with a car theif and a con artist
African American Entertainment
-Struggled to find acceptance
-Television tended to shut us out
-Rock and roll singer faced fewer obstacles
Imaginary marker the government set to reflect the minimum income required to support a family
- Around 30 million or 1/5 americans lived under it
The poor Included
-minorities (Puerto Ricans and Mexicans)
- Rural Americans (African Americans )
-White (slum members)
Who was left behind when middle class families moved to the suburbs?
The poor and less educated
-Cities deteriorated when the middle class taxes weren't being paid
Programs that tried to eliminate poverty by tearing down slums and erecting new high rise buildings for poor residents
-Ended up destroying more housing space than creating
Problems with High Rise buildings
-Created an atmosphere of violence
-Encouraged residents to remain poor by evicting them as soon as they earned a higher income
Long standing patterns of racial discrimination was found in...
Schools, housing, hiring, and salaries
-Kept many inner-city African Americans poor
What did poverty and racial discrimination deprive many African Americans of?
Other benefits such as decent medical care
A Raisin in the Sun
-Written by African American Lorraine Hansberry
-Play told story of a working class African American family struggling against poverty and racism
-Won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for best play of the year
Brought nearly 5 million Mexicans to the United States to work on farms and ranches in the Southwest
-Braceros = temporary contractors
Bracero working conditions
- Lived with extreme poverty and hardship
- Toiled long hours for little pay in unbearable conditions
- Lived in small, crudely built shacks
- Ate whatever and whatever they can when they can
Who were the poorest ethnic group in the nation?
- Made $1k less than African American families
The federal government withdrew all official recognition of the Native American groups as legal entities and made them subject to the same laws as white citizens
-Government tried to encourage Natives to move off reserves and into cities
What was the expense of Native American groups following the termination policy?
Speculators and developers sometimes gained rich farmland
-Termination was a policy that only deepened their poverty
How did the Welfare Council of Minneapolis describe Native American's living conditions?
- One family with 5 or 6 living in two rooms and take in relatives and friends end up with about 15 people crowded into a small place
-Mountains from New York to Georgia hid desperate poverty
-Unemployment soared with mechanization of mining
-1.5 mil people moved to city to seek better life
- High rates of nutritional deficiency and infant mortality occurred since there were few doctors
Antisocial or criminal behavior of young people
- Rose 45%
What did experts blame juvenile delinquency on?
Rising Divorce Rate
Lack of Religion
Anxiety over military draft
Conformity of their parents
Lack of discipline
What did most teens steer clear of?
Gangs, drugs, and crime
What were teens judge on?
Unonventional clothing and long hair or usage of street slang
What did parent think was a possible solution for juvenile delinquency?
What did many Americans feel after the Soviet Union launched the world's first space satellites Sputnik I and II?
The nation had fallen beind its Cold War enemy and blamed what they felt was a lack of technical education in the nation's schools
What dominated the end of a decade that had brought prosperity and progress for many Americans?
Profound fears abut the country's young people
In the 1950's, the number of suburban dwellers ________________ , while the population of ________________ rose by only 10%.
Who published The Other America, a book about the rundown and hidden communities of the country, in 1962?
Who blamed juvenile delinquency on "doting parents" who raised bored children?
Bishop Fulton J. Sheen
What improvements were made in the educational system to address Americans' concerns?
Math and Science education
Election of 48 - Canadites
Unions vs Closed
Section 3 - poverty, city deterioration
Levi towns and suburbs
Rock and Roll
Urban Renewal and Determination Policy
Federal Highway Act