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In setting the broad rules of the game of politics, constitutions

divide power and gives guarantees to the citizens

The British government stepped up its control over the American colonies with new taxes and stronger commerce regulations right after

the French and Indian War in 1763

During the colonial period,

colonists had no representation in Parliament; boycotted British goods; formed First Continental Congress

The British levied new taxes on its North American colonies in the eighteenth century in order to pay for

colonial administration and defense

The Declaration of independence was a

document declaring american independence from Britain

The Declaration of Independence was primarily

a justification of a revolution

The primary author of the Declaration of Independence

was Thomas Jefferson

The Declaration of Independence

stated grievances against teh British monarch and was a Declaration of Independence

The foundationof John Locke's philosophy was that human beings

can revolt against the government if necessary

The American Revolution was based upon the ideas of

declaring independence

John Locke's ideas on natural rights were related to human law in that

laws are determined by an innate moral sense

Reflecting the natural rights philosophy, the Declaration of Independence stated that governments derive their just powers from

the people

Lockean thought and the Declaration of Independence are similar in that both

give people responsibility and focus on the people

Thomas Jefferson's phrase "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" was a modification of John Locke's phrase "Life, liberty, and...


The primary goal of the American Revolution was

to gain independence from Britain

The Articles of Confederation were adopted by

the Continental Congress

Beginning in 1781, the United States was governed under the

Articles of Confederation

Under the Articles of Confederation, most power rested with the

state legislatures

The United States government under the Articles of Confederation can best be described as


Under the Articles of Confederation, power in the states began to shift to the hands of

the state governments

A small band of farmers in western Massachussetts took up arms in what is remembered as

Shay's Rebellion

Finish the Quote: After the Revolution, James Madison observed that "the most common and durable source of faction has been

the various and unequal division of property."

Among the factors that contributed to economic turmoil under the Articles of Confederation was teh

unpayable debts

Shay's Rebellion was

a series of attacks on courthouses by a band of farmers

What was the significance of the Annapolis meeting?

discussed problems from the Articles of Confederation

Those who met at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 were

representatives from 12 states

What was the original, sole, and express purpose of the convention in Philadelphia?

to make a constitution and revise the Articles of Confederation

What view of human nature did the delegates at the Constitutional Convention have?

it was a core idea and the main focus

According to James Madison and many of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention, what is the primary source of political conflict?

various and unequal distribution of property

Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention regarded what as the greatest threat to government?

factions like instability, tyranny, and violence

The view of human nature most prevalent amont the Founding Fathers was that

all people are equal

The________, offered as a proposal at the Constitutional Convention, called for each state to be equally represented in Congress.

New Jersey Plan

The Virgina and New Jersey Plans introducede at teh Constitutional Convention differed mainly over whether

the representation was equal or based on population

According to the Constitution, each state was entitled to how many senators?


As originally established by the Constitution, the House of Representatives had how many members from each state?

different amounts based on population

The Conneticut Compromise at the Constitutional Convention

resolved the impasse between those who favored the New Jersey Plan and those who favored the Virginia Plan

On the issue of slaves, the Constitution specified

slaves were legal (except in Massachussets)

Regarding the right to vote in national elections, the framers of the Constitution

chose all free males

A major purpose of the economic provisions in the Constitution was to

address problems with the economy

Compared to teh government under the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution gave teh central government

economic stability

In order to put the national economy on sound footing, the Constitution obligated teh new government to _________ all the government debts incurred under the Constitutional Congress.

create a policy for

The framers of the Constitution gave the chief economic policymaking role to


The delegates to the Constitutional Convention did not worry about preserving individual rights for all of the following reasons.

because the limited government couldn't threaten personal freedoms

The government designed at the Constitutional Convention allowed the voters to directly elect


The two key elements of the Madisonan model were to

keep most of the government beyond the control of the majority; separate the powers of different institution

The system of checks and balances in the Constitution means that

different institutions work together to regulate their actions

The Federalist Papers were

85 articles by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison (Publius) to defend the Constitution

Ratification of the Constitution

required 9 of 13 states to approve it

Opposition to ratification of the Constitution was based on the belief that it would

be too much change

The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution

in response to Anti-Federalist papers

Ratification of the Constitution was done by

special conventions in each state

Constitutional amendments are usually ratified by

legisatures of 3/4 of states or special state conventions in 4/4 states

The most important effect of the constitutional amendments has been to

emphasize equality and increase ability of people to affect the government

To propose a formal amendment to the Constitution, one needs to have a

2/3 vote in each house of Congress or a national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 state legislatures

How has the Electoral College changed from the original intent of the framers?

more egalitarian and democratic

The Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) aserted the power of the Court to

resolve differences of opinion

The separation of powers and the checks and balances established by the Constitution

is to have each branch check and regulate each other to keep the system balanced

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