39 terms

Spelling Rule Flash Cards (Logic of English)

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C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
center cat
circus clap
icy arc
G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/.
germ get goat
ginger gift glad
allergy argyle log
English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
cry true have edge
high few age
pie
A E O U usually say their names at the end of a syllable.
ta per tap per
be low bel low
to tal tot ter
hu man hum ming
I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable.
li on ti tle
try cry
cli nic vi sit
bi cy cle phy sic
When a one-syllable word ends in a single vowel Y, it says /ī/.
by
my
cry
try
fry
Y says /ē/ only at the end
of a multi-syllable word.
I says /ē/ at the end of a syllable that is followed by a vowel and at the end of foreign words.
ba by fun ny hap py a bil i ty
sta di um o lym pi an cal ci um ra di us
manicotti spaghetti Afghani safari
I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ when followed by two consonants.
bond bold
pond post
rink rind
sing sign
AY usually spells the sound /ā/ at the end of a base word.
may
day
stay
portray
When a word ends with the phonogram A,
it says /ä/.
A may also say /ä/ after a W or before an L.
ma water
pa wasp
koala tall
zebra also
Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
queen
quiet
enquire
liquid
Silent Final E
The vowel says its long sound because of the E. (50% of the time.)
strange bone
theme cute
line type
Silent Final E
English words do not end in V or U.
have blue
love rescue
curve argue
Silent Final E
The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.
choice cage
trace change
commerce orange
Silent Final E
Every syllable must have a written vowel.
ta ble
bi cy cle
waf fle
Silent Final E
Add an E to keep singular words that end in the letter S from looking plural.
house
mouse
goose
Silent Final E
Add an E to make the word look bigger.
are
awe
ewe
Silent Final E
TH says its voiced sound /TH/ because of the E.
breath breathe
teeth teethe
bath bathe
Silent Final E
Add an E to clarify meaning.
or ore
teas tease
Silent Final E
Unseen reason.
done
were
some
come
Drop the silent final E when adding a vowel suffix ONLY if it is allowed by other spelling rules.
like + ing ------> liking
like + ly -------> likely

trace + ing --------> tracing
trace + able -------> traceable

courage + ous ------> courageous
Double the last consonant when adding a vowel suffix to words ending in one vowel followed by one consonant only if the syllable before the suffix is accented.*
*This is always true for one-syllable words.
let + ing let ting
pop + ed pop ped

sleep + ing sleep ing
pick + ing pick ing

for got + en for got' ten
o pen + ing o' pen ing
Single vowel Y changes to I when adding any ending, unless the ending begins with I.
try + es tries
baby + es babies
boy + s boys
try + ing trying
Two I's cannot be next to one another in English words.
cry -----> crying
die ------> dying
lie --------> lying
TI, CI, and SI are used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
e lec tion
spa cious
dis cus sion
SH spells /sh/ at the beginning of a base word and at the end of the syllable.
SH never spells /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending -ship.
shock
dish
friend ship
To make a verb past tense, add the ending -ED unless it is an irregular verb.
stay stayed
count counted
run ran
see saw
-ED, past tense ending, forms another syllable when the base word ends in /d/ or /t/. Otherwise, -ED says /d/ or /t/.
land ed
want ed
played
stamped
To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES. Some nouns have no change or an irregular spelling.
toys boxes stories
cats glasses knives
deer children
fish feet
To make a verb 3rd person singular, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES. Only four verbs are irregular.
She reads.
It hisses.
He carries.

have | has
do |does
go |goes
am |is
AL- is a prefix written with one L when preceding another syllable.
al most
al ways
al so
-FUL is a suffix written with one L when added to another syllable.
grace ful
mer ci ful
won der ful
DGE is used only after a single vowel which says its short sound.
badge
ledge
bridge
lodge
budge
CK is used only after a single vowel which says its short sound.
back
neck
tick
locket
truck
TCH is used only after a single vowel which says its short or broad sound.
match watch
fetch butcher
pitch
botch
hutch
AUGH, EIGH, IGH, OUGH
Phonograms ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word or before the letter T. The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
laugh caught
weigh weight
sigh sight
tough thought
Z, never S, spells /z/ at the beginning of a base word.
zoo
zebra
zipper
We often double F, L, and S after a single, short or broad vowel at the end of a base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.
off ball less ebb
ruff tell mass egg
puff fill toss jazz
Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unaccented syllable or unaccented word.
O may also say /ŭ/ in an accented syllable next to a W, TH, M, N, or V.
about the
before was
infinite from
command
until
wonder, other, compass, son, oven