34 terms

WHI.12 The Late Medieval Period

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he united most of England
William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest
common law
laws that were common to the whole kingdom --- this began to replace law codes that varied from place to place
the beginnings of common law
during the reign of Henry II
signed the Magna Carta
King John
importance of the Magna Carta
limited the king's power
two sides of the Hundred Years' War
France and England
importance of the Hundred Years' War
helped define both France and England as nations
Parliament
the lawmaking body of English government
established the French throne in Paris; his dynasty expanded their control over most of France
Hugh Capet
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English; was a unifying factor for France
unified Spain and expelled Jews and Moors
Ferdinand and Isabella
expanded the Spanish empire in the Western Hemisphere
Charles V
threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian nation
Ivan the Great
held centralized power in Russia
tsar
influenced the unification of Russia
Orthodox Church
purpose of the Crusades
to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
carried out the Crusades
Christian political and religious leaders
Pope Urban's speech
called on the people to take control of the Holy Land
capture of Jerusalem
Crusaders stormed the city and took control of it
founding of Crusader states
feudal states created as the Crusaders took back the Holy Land
Saladin
reconquered Jerusalem from the Christians in 1187
sack of Constantinople
the destruction and plundering of Constantinople by western Crusaders in the Fourth Crusade
effects of the Crusades
- weakened the Pope and strengthened monarchs
- stimulated trade in the Mediterranean and Middle East
- left a legacy of bitterness between Christians, Jews and Muslims
- weakened the Byzantine Empire
Mongols
invaded Russia, Southwest Asia and China to create an empire
Constantinople fell
to Ottoman Turks in 1453, ending the Byzantine Empire
Istanbul
new name for Constantinople; the capital of the Ottoman Empire
Black Death
Bubonic Plague
time period when the Black Death occurred
14th century
impact of the Black Death
- decimated the population
- scarcity of labor
- towns freed from feudal obligations
- decline of Church infuence
- disruption of trade
clergy
education was largely confined to them in the Middle Ages
church scholars
among the very few who could read and write
where church scholars worked
monastaries
how church scholars preserved ancient literature
translating Greek and Arabic works into Latin
church scholars made new knowledge on these subjects available in Europe
philosophy, medicine and science
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