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The long-term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place based upon records taken.


The distance from the equator measured in degrees north or south of the equator.


Movement of air within the atmosphere.

Prevailing Winds

Trade winds, westerlies, and polar easterlies.


The tilt of Earth's axis.

Ozone Layer

An area in the stratosphere where ozone is highly concentrated.

Ozone Hole

A thinning of stratospheric ozone that occurs over the poles during the spring.

Polar-Stratospheric Clouds

When temperatures fall below about -80 degrees, high-altitude clouds made of water and nitric acid begin to form.

Ozone Thinning on Humans

Damages DNA.

Montreal Protocol

International agreement to limit CFC production.

Greenhouse Effect

Sunlight streams through the atmosphere and heats the Earth.

Greenhouse Gases

The gases the do absorb and radiate heat.

5 Major Greenhouse Gases

Carbon Dioxide, CFCs, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, and Water Vapor.

Global Warming

The increasing greenhouse gases in our atmosphere result in increasing the average temperature on Earth.


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Kyoto Protocol

Developed countries to decrease emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by an average of 5 percent below their 1990 levels by 2012.

El Nino

Winds push warm water eastward in the Pacific Ocean.

Atmospheric CO2

Increases when fossil fuels are burned.

Stratospheric Ozone

Destroyed by CFCs.


Low-angle sunlight.

Surface Ocean Currents

Caused by wind and influenced by Earth's rotation.

La Nina

Water is cooler than usual in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

Warm, Moist Air Rises

Rain frequently results whenever...


Latitude strongly influences climate because _______ solar energy falls on areas that are closer to the equator than to the poles.

Cold Air is Denser Than Warm Air

An important property of air circulation is...

Water Vapor

Gas most responsible for the greenhouse effect.

Phytoplankton, Tropical Rain Forests, and Oceans

Reduces CO2 in the atmosphere.

More Directly for Long Days

During the summer, sunlight in the Northern Hemisphere shines...

Absorbs UV Light

Ozone in the stratosphere...

Chlorine atoms are released from polar stratospheric clouds.

Ozone holes appear in polar regions during springtime when ozone-destroying...

Persist and continue to destroy ozone for decades.

Once in the atmosphere, CFCs...


La Nina is the _______ phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.

Risen some years and fallen other years but has increased overall

The average global temperature has ________ during the 20th century.

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