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33 terms

Chapter 13 Environmental Science

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Climate
The long-term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place based upon records taken.
Latitude
The distance from the equator measured in degrees north or south of the equator.
Wind
Movement of air within the atmosphere.
Prevailing Winds
Trade winds, westerlies, and polar easterlies.
Seasons
The tilt of Earth's axis.
Ozone Layer
An area in the stratosphere where ozone is highly concentrated.
Ozone Hole
A thinning of stratospheric ozone that occurs over the poles during the spring.
Polar-Stratospheric Clouds
When temperatures fall below about -80 degrees, high-altitude clouds made of water and nitric acid begin to form.
Ozone Thinning on Humans
Damages DNA.
Montreal Protocol
International agreement to limit CFC production.
Greenhouse Effect
Sunlight streams through the atmosphere and heats the Earth.
Greenhouse Gases
The gases the do absorb and radiate heat.
5 Major Greenhouse Gases
Carbon Dioxide, CFCs, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, and Water Vapor.
Global Warming
The increasing greenhouse gases in our atmosphere result in increasing the average temperature on Earth.
IPCC
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Kyoto Protocol
Developed countries to decrease emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by an average of 5 percent below their 1990 levels by 2012.
El Nino
Winds push warm water eastward in the Pacific Ocean.
Atmospheric CO2
Increases when fossil fuels are burned.
Stratospheric Ozone
Destroyed by CFCs.
Winter
Low-angle sunlight.
Surface Ocean Currents
Caused by wind and influenced by Earth's rotation.
La Nina
Water is cooler than usual in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
Warm, Moist Air Rises
Rain frequently results whenever...
More
Latitude strongly influences climate because _______ solar energy falls on areas that are closer to the equator than to the poles.
Cold Air is Denser Than Warm Air
An important property of air circulation is...
Water Vapor
Gas most responsible for the greenhouse effect.
Phytoplankton, Tropical Rain Forests, and Oceans
Reduces CO2 in the atmosphere.
More Directly for Long Days
During the summer, sunlight in the Northern Hemisphere shines...
Absorbs UV Light
Ozone in the stratosphere...
Chlorine atoms are released from polar stratospheric clouds.
Ozone holes appear in polar regions during springtime when ozone-destroying...
Persist and continue to destroy ozone for decades.
Once in the atmosphere, CFCs...
Cold
La Nina is the _______ phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.
Risen some years and fallen other years but has increased overall
The average global temperature has ________ during the 20th century.